A comparison of duck and chicken egg yolk for cryopreservation of egyptian buffalo bull spermatozoa

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Ibrahim El-Shamaa, El-Shenawy El-Seify, Ahmed Hussien, Mohamed El-Sherbieny and Mohamed El-Sharawy

Cryopreservation of domestic animal spermatozoa has been widely used for artificial insemination and egg yolk is one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants during the freezing-thawing process. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different duck egg yolk (DEY) concentrations (10, 15 and 20% DEY) with chicken egg yolk (20% CHEY) on the cryopreservation of Egyptian buffalo spermatozoa following dilution, equilibration and freezing-thawing processes. For this purpose, one ejaculate of semen from each of three Egyptian buffalo bulls were collected twice each week for 4 weeks with artificial vagina (42ºC). Pooled ejaculates were divided into four parts and were diluted in Tric citric acid glycerol extender containing either 10 or 15 or 20% DEY or 20% CHEY at 37ºC. Extended semen was equilibrated for 4h at 5ºC and then was filled in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Thawing of semen was performed at 37ºC for 30s. Progressive sperm motility, live sperm % and plasma membrane integrity after different stages of cryopreservation were assayed. Values of these parameters of post-thaw semen quality were higher for extender containing 15% DEY as compared with 20% CHEY (control extender), being 59.6% vs. 47.9%, 72.3% vs. 55.0% and 80.7% vs. 69.1% for progressive motility, live sperm and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Using a post-thawing semen containing 15% DEY yielded comparatively highest conception rate (65.8%) followed by 20% DEY (59.3%), 20% CHEY (58.6%) and 10% DEY (58.1%). In conclusion, DEY compared to chicken egg yolk in extender improves the frozen-thawed quality of Egyptian buffalo bull spermatozoa and fertility rate.

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El-Shamaa I., El-Seify E. L., Hussien A., El-Sherbieny M., El-Sharawy M., 2012, A comparison of duck and chicken egg yolk for cryopreservation of egyptian buffalo bull spermatozoa. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 109-113.

 

Achievement, testing and evaluation a mathematical model to optimize swinenutrition

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Radu BURLACU, C. NIȚU, Ioana RĂDULESCU

The paper presents a mathematical model for calculating the rules of energy and protein in growing pigs and fattening. Were used functions and parameters in the literature (Whittemore, Kyriazakis and Emmans), including our results. Based on this model is shown a procedure for calculating the feed rations. The method of mathematical modelling of the metabolic processes offers the possibility to assess feed allowances in their evolution, related both to the growth rate and to carcass quality. This paper presents an approach of this issue. Because of a given weight gain the quality of this gain is included in an interval ( min Lr = Lr = max Lr , where Lr = daily retained lipids and Pr = daily retained PrPr Pr protein), it results that feed allowance will be expressed as intervals of the form [normmin, normmax]. We obtain thus an infinity of possible values for the feed allowance. The choice of one possible value or of another one depends on the used raising technology, on the purpose of growing expressed in economic terms and/or in terms of a human-friendly food. In the present paper, besides the modality of calculating the intervals for the energy and protein allowance we shall also present formulas which, in our opinion, characterise a physiological evolution of the weight gain and of the lipid/protein ratio of the carcass.

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Burlacu R., Nițu C., Rădulescu I., 2012, Achievement, testing and evaluation a mathematical model to optimize swine nutrition. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 42-45.

 

Analyze of reproduction activity in dairy cows in Vrancea region

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Paul TĂPĂLOAGĂ, Dana TĂPĂLOAGĂ, Alexandru ȘONEA, Iuliana NEAGU, Monica MARIN

The basis of cattle development, livestock increasing, quality improvement, milk yield and economic efficiency increasing is the reproduction activity process. The researches in the present paper were carried out in Vrancea region, in the south-east of Romania, on a 1000 Holstein Frisian cows livestock, in different lactations, raised in different location. There were analyzed the main reproduction activity indicators resulted following the artificial insemination biotechnology activity: the age at first calving, number of inseminations per one pregnancy, the fecundity index, the length of service-period and calving interval. The primary data were statistically processed, being calculated the main statistic population parameters: average, its error, standard deviation, coefficient of variability. There were recorded the data following every pregnancy, from the first one to the third and there was established the moment of the best results. The obtained results represented key-points in technologic flow optimization of the artificial insemination biotechnology in the studied region, having in view the sustainable agriculture development principles.

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Tăpăloagă P., Tăpăloagă D., Șonea A., Neagu I., Marin M., 2012, Analyze of reproduction activity in dairy cows in Vrancea region. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 142-145.

 

Animal biodiversity conservation, a key of sustainable agriculture. Case study:The romanian Pinzgau breed in Transilvania region

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Răzvan POPA, Dana POPA, Marius MAFTEI, Dorel DRONCA, Vasile BĂCILĂ

Pinzgau breed or Pinzgauer is called after its region of origin (place Pinzgauer, near Salzburg, Austria) and is a mountain breed of cattle. The breed appeared in the 19th century from local mountain breeds and was developed in three directions: traction, milk and meat. Recent research has shown that specimens of the Pinzgau breed feed recovered well from such areas, farmers, to get average yields, having to buy a small amount of concentrated feed for animal ration to complete. In Romania, Red Pinzgau breed formed after absorption crosses made between local breeds of cattle (Grey Steppe and MocaniGa) and Pizgau of Austria, since the second half of the nineteenth century, and black Pinzgau named "Cow of Dorna" by crossing local cattle with various mountain improved breeds (Pinzgauer, Mölltal, Zillertal, Dux-Zillertal, Dutch, Brown, etc.). The breed is exploited in three areas: NW of Moldavia, SW of Transylvania and W of Transylvania -Apuseni Mountains. Transylvanian Pinzgau breed has a sound constitution, lively temperament, docile character, precocity mediocre, high longevity, good capacity of adaptation, resistance to disease and weather. Has a multilateral skill (milk, meat, traction). These things are the main reasons why race should be kept in a form of active conservation. Moreover, in order to preserve the tradition and traditional products in Romania, is required to maintain this breed and even the formation of its national park.

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Popa R., Popa D., Maftei M., Dronca D., Băcilă V., 2012, Animal biodiversity conservation, a key of sustainable agriculture. Case study:The romanian Pinzgau breed in Transilvania region. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 25-29.

 

Assessment nutritional value and efficiency for use of a new source ofvegetable fodder

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Sergiu COȘMAN, Mihail BAHCIVANJI, Valeriu COCIU, Valentina COȘMAN, Sava BĂLĂNESCU

Fodder sources for livestock sector diversification is always present a problem in Moldova. Viticulture industry in our country occupies an important place in agriculture and annually the result of processing of grapes obtained large quantities of such waste as: grape marc, peel grapes, wine lees and others. These wastes can serve as a very precious source of feed for farming animals. Currently, waste from processing of grapes is used in other fields -medicine, food industry. As a result of these processing products are obtained comparative new and less studied, such as cake or macuhul (cake) made of grape seeds, shell beans and others. The aim of our research was to studied nutritional value and the possibility use macuhului (cake) made of grape seed in nutrition of young cattle and appreciation the optimal level of inclusion of this product in the composition combined fodder. Macuhul (cake) made of grape seeds is a precious waste of processing industry can be successfully used in rations of farming animals because it contains a sufficient level of protein (10.5%), lipids (5.2), sugar (9.8%), macro-and microelements. Taking into consideration the productivity of animals, ingestion level of feeds, blood indices, we believe that the optimal level of inclusion of the macuhului (cake) made of grape seeds in the composition combined fodder for young cattle is 5 to 10%.

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Coșman S., Bahcivanji M., Cociu V., Coșman V., Bălănescu S., 2012, Assessment nutritional value and efficiency for use of a new source of vegetable fodder. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 53-56 .

 

Bee colonies comfort in different types of hivesBee colonies comfort in different types of hives

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Valentina CEBOTARI, I. BUZU

In order to test various hive systems in growing and exploitation of bee colonies, and in order to estimate comparative advantages and disadvantages, assessment of biological bee comfort, as well as economic efficiency of their exploitation in small and medium beekeeping farms, was carried out an experiment on comparative study of maintaining bee colonies in different types of hives: horizontal and vertical, both with Dadant frames. Two similar batches of bee colonies were created. The first batch of 20 colonies was put in horizontal hives and second batch with 25 colonies– in vertical hives. The main sources of honey in the area were: Acacia, Linden tree and spontaneous flora. In beekeeping season of 2011 have been studied main biological and morpho productive characters of bee colonies, such as: colony strengthens, resistance to overwinter and diseases, queens prolificacy, brood viability, total quantity of honey collected in nest after harvest. Appreciation of morpho productive characters was done according to our methodology developed by the new zootechnic regulation according to bee colonies valuation, growing and certification of genitor beekeeping materials, approved by decision of Government of Republic of Moldova no. 306 of 28.04.2011. It was found that the types of hives, where were housed the experimental bees, all other equal conditions of maintenance and exploitation, have not had any impact on the biological process of bees overwinter. This is confirmed by the fact that the average strengthens of bee colonies in both experimental groups, being equal at the beginning of experiment (1,78 kg in the autumn of 2010, in entry of overwinter) remained same in spring of 2011 (1,49 kg out of the winter). Therefore, overwinter resistance of bee colonies in both groups was also identical, averaging 83.1%. At the same time, the hive types, tested in experiment, had a significant influence on reproduction process and development of bee colonies in high beekeeping season. Thus, the queens prolificacy from 2nd batch with bee colonies located in vertical hives during the season, was higher compared to the Ist batch, accommodated in vertical hives, with 60 eggs/24 hours, or with 3.5% (B > 0.95). A better prolificacy activity of queens in vertical hives can be explained, in our view, by the fact that they have a better comfort of laying, compared with those from horizontal hives. We found that in horizontal hives, queens prefer for laying the area near bee entrance and it is explained by the fact that this place is better aired and ensure the brood with sufficient oxygen. In vertical hives queens laying is more uniform and it is spread on more honeycombs. This is due to a better and uniform ventilation in entire hive, which gives enough oxygen to brood. All this, has led to an active laying of queens from vertical hives, also to a bigger amount of capped brood and as a result, essential increase of bee colony strengthens. At the beginning of first harvest (locust tree), bee colonies placed in vertical hives reclaimed at a bigger rate than those placed in horizontal hives. Regarding bee colonies strengthens, those from 2nd batch exceeded significant, at this stage, those from 1st batch, with 0.33 kg or 9,4% (B > 0,99). Bee colonies from vertical hives entered overwinter significantly more powerful than bees from horizontal hives, which creates premises for a stronger development and better productivity in the next beekeeping season. Due to a quicker development, bee colonies kept in vertical hives accumulated, during active season, a bigger quantity of honey in the nest. Thus, the total quantity of honey accumulated in nest, bee families maintained in vertical hives have significantly exceeded those from horizontal hives with 7.5 kg, or 19,1% (B > 0.999). Economic effect obtained at exploitation of vertical hives only from honey production is 375 MD lei, or 23.8 euro per bee colony. Based on obtained results were made following conclusions. 1. Vertical hives compared to horizontal hives, offer to bee colony more comfortable biological conditions. 2. Maintenance of bee colonies in vertical hives ensures an increase of queens laying -3.5% and of average annual strengthens of the bee colony – with 6.0%. 3. Use of vertical hives contributes to increasing of honey production with 19.1%. 4. Bee colonies exploitation in vertical hives ensures economic efficiency at least 23.8 euro per bee colony.

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Cebotari V., Buzu I., 2012, Bee colonies comfort in different types of hivesBee colonies comfort in different types of hives. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 149-153.

 

Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli strains from albanian poultry flocks

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by SHTYLLA Tana, CIRCELLA Elena, MADIO Anna, BOCI Jonida, ÇABELI Pranvera, KUMBE Ilirian, CAMARDA Antonio

A total of 129 pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (APEC) isolated from hens and broilers suffering from colisepticaemia and ovaritis were studied regarding their biological and pathogenic characteristics such as serogroups and virulence associated genes. For comparison were studied also other 100 poultry fecal E.coli strains originated from apparently healthy birds. Serotyping demonstrated that most of E.coli strains were untypable in both colibacillosis clinic division groups (62% for and 34%, whereas in 129 of E. coli strains the searched eight virulence genes for their presence showed relationship with colibacillosis infection outbreaks in poultry. Serotyping identified a very wide variety of serotypes according to APEC and AFEC strains. Serotypes most often associated with the presence of clinical signs resulted O86 (8, 75%), O2 (4, 86%), O8 (6, 77%), O15 (3, 88%), O139 (2, 92%) ; O157 (2.92%) 78 O (1, 94%), while those with apparently healthy birds: O8 (11, 53%), O157 (7, 69%), O73 (3, 85 %), O86 (3, 85%), O115 (3, 85%) and O2 (3, 75%). The lack of virulence factors in APEC strains resulted 18, 05%, while in AFEC strains 81, 95%. This study identified significant differences of virulence factors among strains isolated from lesions, compared to those from apparently healthy subjects. Anyway the detection of virulence genes present in serotypes O15, O86, O73, O101, O147, O157, brings a wider variety of APEC in serogroups classification. These data obtained from genetic characterization of avian E.coli strains constitute the first report in Albania, for colibacillosis infection outbreak in poultry flocks. The presence, appearance and distribution of virulence genes in poultry flocks, provides basic information for the control and eradication of the colibacillosis infection. Application of molecular biology methods to further knowledge of the serotyping data now is a time requirement for the prevention and eradication of avian colibacillosis or other bacterial poultry infections.

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Shtylla T., Circella E., Madio A., Boci J., Çabeli P., Kumbe I., Camarda A., 2012, Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli strains from albanian poultry flocks. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 11-14.

 

Comparative study about production and slaughtering performances in an industrial company with ROSS 308 standard chicken hybrid

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Carmen Viorica RADU, Elena POPESCU- MICLOȘANU

The aim of this paper is to study production and slaughtering efficiency of a poultry flock up to 50 days of age by using technological indexes compared to a standard flock of the same age. Two groups of 50 birds each (both males and females) were randomly taken from production house in this purpose. Parameters followed were: live weight, carcass weight, slaughtering output, and also cut and of-boned pieces of significant weight when marketed as well defined products (breast and legs). Statistical data processing methods were used to process data from in slaughterhouse: media, media error and variability coefficient. During next phase a comparative analyze between data from standard and experimental group (Student test) and finding of phenotypic correlations between body weight and cut parts at both sexes were used. Obtained results led to conclusion that there are significant differences of average production performances between experimental and standard group and these differences are in favor of standard group. Slaughtering outputs have shown differences from standard.

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Radu C. V., Popescu- Micloșanu E., 2012, Comparative study about production and slaughtering performances in an industrial company with ROSS 308 standard chicken hybrid. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 214-218.

 

Contribution of both soluble and insoluble fractions of untreated and treated Acacia saligna and Leucaena leucocephala with different levels of urea to rumen fermentation, in vitro

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by NASSER MOHAMED EMAD ABD EL-WAHAB

The objectives of this work are to characterise the in vitro fermentation contribution of both soluble and insoluble fractions, and the effects of ensiling of acacia (Acacia saligna, AC) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, LE) leaves with different levels of urea (U, 0, 1, 3 or 5%) on gas production, energy value and organic matter digestibility (OMD%) of AC and LE. The acacia and leucaena were ensiled for 35 days. Ground samples (200 mg DM) of the ensiled materials from the eight treatments were incubated in glass syringes with rumen fluid obtained from fistulated sheep fed berseem hay and commercial concentrate mixture twice a day. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and the kinetics of gas production was described by using the equation: Gas (Y) = a + b (1-exp-ct).Ensiling of AC and LE leaves with U increased crude protein and ash, while the contents of tested samples of total phenol (TP), total tannins (TT) and condensed tannins (CT) were decreased. Also, ensiling of AC and LE leaves with U significantly (P <0.05) decreased gas production. All washed samples showed losses of soluble material. The gas production was, in general, significantly (P<0.05) higher for the unwashed substrates. Leucaena gave the highest values of gas production compared with acacia. The gas production volume was significantly (P <0.05) higher for ensiled AC and LE leaves without U than ensiled AC with 5%U or ensiled LE with 3%U. The maximum rate of gas production increased after ensiling AC and LE leaves with 5% and 3% U, respectively. The calculated values of metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) were significantly (P<0.05) increased for ensiled AC with 3 and 5%U, while ensiled LE with U was not significantly affected. The organic matter digestibility (OMD %) and microbial protein production were significantly (P<0.05) higher for ensiled AC and LE with U, while short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. The concentrations of TP, TT and CT were strongly correlated (p<0.01). The TP, TT and CT were negatively related (p<0.01) with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), but not with hemicelluloses (HEMI). The crude protein was strongly correlated (p<0.01) with NDF, ADF and CT and negatively related (p<0.01) with TF and TT, but not with HEMI. In conclusion, there were negative effects on the in vitro gas production occurring more consistently when AC and LE were ensiled with different levels of U, while OMD% and microbial proteins were significantly (P<0.05) increased. The in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters were significantly correlated with chemical composition of shrubs. Finally, it is generally more appropriate to measure the degradation of organic matter as usual dry matter can give problems of interpretation of the significance of the soluble fraction.

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Nasser M. E. A. E., 2012, Contribution of both soluble and insoluble fractions of untreated and treated Acacia saligna and Leucaena leucocephala with different levels of urea to rumen fermentation, in vitro. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 78-86.

 

Correlations between phenotypic associations Hb/K and quantitative production traits in the Botosani Karakul sheep

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV
Written by Gheorghe HRINCĂ, Petru Gabriel VICOVAN

The existence of a linkage between the determinant loci of haemoglobin and blood potassium in the ovine species suggested to us the approach of correlations between various combinations of haemoglobin and potassium phenotypes and the quantitative production parameters (meat, wool, milk) in the Botosani Karakul breed. The electrophoretic and flame photometric tests pointed out four phenotypic combinations (of the six possible) between the haemoglobin and potassium types: HbAB/LK, HbAB/HK, HbBB/LK and HbBB/HK. The four phenotypic combinations Hb/K are characterized by different levels of their production metabolism according to the age and sex of animals. The experimental data show that the subpopulations of animals with phenotypic combinations HbAB/HK and HbBB/HK are more productive than the subpopulations of animals with phenotypic combinations HbAB/LK and HbBB/LK. These correlational aspects recommend the use of phenotypic combinations Hb/K as biochemical genetic markers to improve the production traits of the Botosani Karakul breed.

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Hrincă G., Vicovan P. G., 2012, Correlations between phenotypic associations Hb/K and quantitative production traits in the Botosani Karakul sheep. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 176-182.

 


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