BEE COLONIES EXPLOITATION AT APPLE BLOSSOM POLLINATION IN THE ORCHARDS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Valentina CEBOTARI, Ion BUZU

It was done an experiment in order to test comparative the three methods (ways) of hives placement on the ground at the apple pollination, in 3 analogous intensive orchards, with four sorts, that are compatible to the pollination, of 10 hectares each, which were located at a distance of 600 m from each other. In all sectors of the orchard, bee colonies have been assigned with the charge of 3 families/ha. In the first sector (I Batch - control) of orchard, hives with bee colonies were located at the edge of the orchard (sector) in the front side of rows. In the second sector (II batch), the hives were located on the technologic road which separated in the centre the sector of orchard, perpendicular to fruit trees rows. The distance between hives was 10 m from each other. In the third sector of the orchard (III batch), the hives were located between the trees rows, in line, at a distance of 100 m from each other and over every 7th row of trees. In each experimental batch were rated the free entomophily pollination results (crossed) and isolated (auto pollination). It was found that, in the Ist batch, frequency of bees visit at tree blossom, has been weaker in the first days of hives placement, but was pretty good in batches II and III, even from first day. With the increase of air temperature, in all batches was registered a growth tendency of bees visits frequency at blossom. The results of the experiment, have shown that free pollination (cross) entomophily (with predominant participation in proportion of 90 - 95% of honey bees) of apple trees in the orchard ensures the flowers fertilization, depending of beehives location on the field, at the level of 22.2 – 47.5%, that is 13.8-22.6 times higher, compared with the isolated pollination - auto pollination (1.5 – 1.6%). Therefore, it has been confirmed, once again, the conclusion of many researchers, that, the participation of honey bees at pollination of apple's culture is an indisputable necessary measure. Uniform and proportional placement of bee hives inside the orchard, between the rows, in line, at a distance of 100 m from each other, and over every 7th row of trees, ensures a significant increase, compared to the control batch(located at the orchards edge), of bees visit frequency to the flowers is 2.4 times more (td = 20.0; P<0.001), of the bees flight intensity (with and without balls) with 24.5 – 53.3% (td = 3.5 – 4.8; P<0.001), of collected pollen quantity - with 46.2% (td = 2.8; P<0.01), of flowers fertilizing degree - with 2.1 times (td = 14.4; P<0.001) and, compared to traditional methods of hives placement (on the technological roads of the orchard), ensured the growth of bees visits frequency on blossom - with 74.4% (td = 12.9; P<0.001), of collected pollen quantity from apple - with 17.5 % (td = 2.4; P<0.05), and of fertilization degree of flowers - with 36.9% (td = 7.0; P<0.001).

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Cebotari V., Buzu I. 2014, BEE COLONIES EXPLOITATION AT APPLE BLOSSOM POLLINATION IN THE ORCHARDS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5782, 181-188.


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