A REVIEW OF THE ADAPTATION OF THE NEWBORN CALF TO ITS ENVIRONMENT

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Roxana-Mariana IGNĂTESCU (ȚÎMPĂU), Ana-Maria GOANȚĂ, A. MIHAI, L. IONIȚĂ

During the first months of life, the calf needs to adapt physiologically to three challenges: extra-uterine life, maintaining the prolonged pre-ruminant stage and weaning. This paper aims to detail the newborn calf’s adaptation to extra-uterine life, namely changes occurring at the digestive level, and less at the endocrine or immunological levels, knowing that the calf is born hypo- or a-gammaglobulemic. At birth, the digestive system of the calf is structurally complete (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum), but functionally incomplete, as the abomasum is the only active compartment in the digestion of the pre-ruminant calf. From this moment and up to two weeks of life, the calf can be considered monogastric, as a result of the existence of an anatomical structure that ensures the passage of the colostrum/milk replacer to the abomasum. The transition from intrauterine life to extra-uterine life is very demanding for the calf, as immediately after birth it has to adapt to new environmental and nutritional conditions. At birth, the young ruminant becomes dependent to the extrauterine environment regarding food intake. Concerning the environment, the greatest adaptation efforts are related to thermoregulation, as the calf transitions from 38.8°C in utero to below 20°C in the shelter. After birth, changes in the newborn’s energy metabolism determine the production of endogenous glucose and the use of fats to compensate for the continued loss of glucose. In the meat industry, young calves are generally fed by their mother and are weaned progressively. Instead, calves coming from dairy cows are separated from their mother immediately after birth and receive colostrum during the first two days of life and then milk or milk replacer for the next weeks. Ingestion of colostrum is essential for the morphological and functional development of calves. Maintaining the calves in a prolonged pre-ruminant phase (up to 3-5 months or more) is done in some European countries producing approximately 750 000 tons of veal, consumed annually in the European Union. Some dairy calves are maintained in a precursor stage for about a month and then weaned over a two-week period. At present, artificial colostration, due to the establishment of colostrum banks, is gaining more and more ground, thus giving up the direct contact of the calf with the mother.

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IGNATESCU (TIMPAU) R.M., GOANTA A.M., MIHAI A., IONITA L. 2018, A REVIEW OF THE ADAPTATION OF THE NEWBORN CALF TO ITS ENVIRONMENT . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 52-60.

A REVIEW ON THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL FOOD PRODUCTS FROM MEAT IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES USING GFAAS AND FAAS TECHNIQUES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Florina RAICU, Constantin VLAGIOIU, Nicolae TUDOR

This review paper aimed to highlight the importance of heavy metals and their presence in animal bodies and in their food products. There are specific organizations that have the role of constantly monitoring the levels of heavy metals and their consequences for human health, if the maximum admissible limits imposed by European legislation are exceeded. Their surveillance has an important role to safeguard consumers in case of a food contamination incident. They address issues such as sustainability, biological diversity, climate change, nutritional economics, population growth, water supply, and access to food. Naturally, heavy metals are not found in the animal body or in the animal food products, but they can be discovered as a result of their conscious or accidental incorporation (contamination) in food and which, by exceeding the acceptable limits, can constitute a health risk factor. As methods of analysis, Graphite Furnace and Flame Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry were used. Therefore, it is very important to continually assess the levels of these analytes (Lead, Cadmium), to ensure that the values fall within the maximum admissible limits.

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RAICU F., VLAGIOIU C., TUDOR N. 2018, A REVIEW ON THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL FOOD PRODUCTS FROM MEAT IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES USING GFAAS AND FAAS TECHNIQUES . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 307-311.

AN EXPECTATION OF BIORESOURCE FUNCTION AGAINST PARASITE INFECTION ON ANIMAL HEALTH

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Laurentius RUMOKOY, Jimmy POSANGI, Wisje Lusia TOAR, Julio LOPEZ ABAN4

The studies of the utilization of bio-resources substance has an increasing to be applied in preventing parasitic infections in livestock related both to endo-parasite and ecto-parasite. The use of bio-resource could be extracted from a substance originated plants and animals. The immunoglobulins in colostrum are well known as important bioresource for young neonate individual to protect against parasites even to the pathogenic microbes. In other part plants have a lot of bio-actives compound that are useful to conserve the animal health. This article is to present our study by using colostrum immunoglobulins and curcuma on endo-parasite infection treated in young experimental animals. The study was conducted by using seven-teen mice with four treatments (T). T1 signified an infection with parasite only, T2 represented a treatment of curcuma in animal infected with parasite, T3 was the treatment of colostrum immunoglobulin in animal infected with the parasite larva, and T4 showed a treatment of curcuma mixed with colostrum immunoglobulin in infected mice. The distribution of the colostrum Ig and curcuma substances was realized through a drinking water, given ad libitum. The data collection of larva in gut was realized at 7th days post infection while the EPG data collection was taken at 5th to 7th days post infection. The results revealed that there has a significant response between the treatment (P<0.01) which a combination between colostrum immunoglobulin (T4) caused a highest number of larva observed, while There has a non-significant difference of EPG number (P>0.05) between all treatment (T1, T2, T3 and T4). We concluded that curcuma and colostrum immunoglobulin were useful to suppress the parasite of Strongyloides venezuelensis in the gut rather than to suppress the number of EPG in the fecal matter of experiment mice.

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RUMOKOY L., POSANGI J., TOAR W.L., LOPEZ ABAN4 J. 2018, AN EXPECTATION OF BIORESOURCE FUNCTION AGAINST PARASITE INFECTION ON ANIMAL HEALTH . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 216-219.

ANALYSIS OF FODDER PLANTS FROM A VEGETAL FARM FOR INCREASING THE RENTABILITY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Lucica NISTOR, Camelia HODOSAN, Marius Laurian MAFTEI, Andra Dorina SULER, Sorin BARBUICA

Following the research executed in a vegetal farm, the analysis of several types of plants assortments (sunflower, autumn barley, corn and wheat), with regards to the agricultural technologies applied, as well as their economic impact, with the purpose of determining improvement measures regarding structure of cultures and economic-financial performances within future years. The yields per unit area were determined by the varieties and hybrids used in each crop, by the applied crop technology, by the quality of the agricultural work carried out and by the pedological and climatic conditions. The average yield on crops was as follows: 3,500 kg/ha for wheat, 5,000 kg/ha for winter barley, 2,500 kg/ha for sunflower, 6,000 kg/ha for maize. The total crop yield was conditioned by the production capacity per unit area and cultivated area. Thus, total crop yields were as follows: 2,975 t wheat, 750 t barley, 1,375 t sunflower, 600 t corn. The obtained products were fully utilized on the market, with the exception of wheat. Of the total production of 2,975 t of wheat, 950 t were allocated to the landowners in the company, each providing an in-kind rent of 500 kg of wheat per hectare. Therefore, only 2,025 t of wheat became the commodity production, meaning 68.06% of the total production obtained in this crop.

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NISTOR L., HODOSAN C., MAFTEI M.L., SULER A.D., BARBUICA S. 2018, ANALYSIS OF FODDER PLANTS FROM A VEGETAL FARM FOR INCREASING THE RENTABILITY . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 112-114.

APPLICATION OF CONJOINT ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE CONSUMERS’ RED MEAT PREFERENCES IN SIIRT PROVINCE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Mustafa KİBAR, Nazire MİKAİL

The aim of this paper is defining consumers’ preferences for the red meat in Siirt Province. This paper illustrates the conjoint analysis application in determining consumers' preferences for the attributes of red meat according to the amount of consumption. Multiple regression analysis used for determination most valued attributes and their levels. A random sample of 160 red meat consumers was interviewed in Siirt Province. They were asked to provide demographic information and responses to several survey questions, as well as to participate in a conjoint analysis study. For the survey portion of the interview, respondents were asked to assess the importance of the following attributes: meat type, purchasing sources and price. As a result of the study, it was found that relative importance of attributes for the regular consumers were 48.8% price, 30.7% purchasing source, 20.5% meat type, and for non-regular consumers were 37.3% meat type, 34.3% price and 28.4% purchasing source. Determination coefficients of the models for regular and non-regular consumers were found as 99.3% and 99.2%, respectively.

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KIBAR M., MIKAIL N. 2018, APPLICATION OF CONJOINT ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE CONSUMERS’ RED MEAT PREFERENCES IN SIIRT PROVINCE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 303-306.

AVIAN PROTEOMICS: POTENTIAL TOOL FOR PRE- AND POSTSLAUGHTER POULTRY MUSCLE QUALITY EVALUATION – A REVIEW

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Mihai COSTACHE, Ilie VAN

A discipline within functional genomics, proteomics represents the method of analysis which allows a cell or a tissue's proteins (proteome) to be analyzed under certain given conditions. Functional proteomics allows scientists to address the interactions of different proteins in order to better understand the consequences of these interactions, and further on, to acquire knowledge on different specific areas, such as poultry breeding and quality of meat. Proteomics could help to characterize pathogen-host interactions in the diseases of livestock, assess the reproductive health and evaluate the muscle growth dynamics. Furthermore, it can be successfully applied in assessing the specific chemical reactions of rigor mortis (muscle quality), as well as evaluating the indicators of farm animal welfare, such as heat-induced stress.

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COSTACHE M., VAN I. 2018, AVIAN PROTEOMICS: POTENTIAL TOOL FOR PRE- AND POSTSLAUGHTER POULTRY MUSCLE QUALITY EVALUATION – A REVIEW . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 283-294.

BEE POLLEN AS ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT IN READY-TO-SERVE CITRUS JUICE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Laura STAN

Bee pollen is a highly nutritious food supplement, which can be easily added to any juice type and enrich its nutritional and sensory quality. The aim of the study was to develop a citrus juice recipe enriched with bee pollen, highly nutritional and with good acceptability of consumers and to compare the polyphenols content and radical scavenging activity of regular citrus juice (RJ) versus enriched citrus juice with bee pollen (JBP). Both products were evaluated for vitamin C content, antioxidant activity (DPPH method), total polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu method) and sensory evaluation by consumers (N=125) using nine scale hedonic test. The addition of bee pollen and honey to the citrus juice did modify significantly (p<0.05) the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity in JBP compared to RJ. The hedonic score of JBP was 7.29 ± 1.61, slightly lower than RJ (8.04 ± 0.73). More than 70% respondents declared they would buy this drink due to the beneficial effects of bee pollen. Bee pollen is one convenient option of many available on market used to increase the nutritional value of beverages.

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STAN L. 2018, BEE POLLEN AS ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT IN READY-TO-SERVE CITRUS JUICE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 312-317.

CARCASS PERFORMANCE OF HEIFERS AND BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Yalçın BOZKURT, Cihan DOGAN

This study aimed to evaluate and compare performance of body weight (BW) at slaughter, hot carcass weight (HCW) and dressing-out percentages (DP%) of bulls and heifers of different breeds. The data from heifers (84) and bulls (90) for sex; and for breeds of Simmental (58), Holstein (62) and their crosses (S×H) (54) were used as174 animals in total. BWs of each breed were 486.5, 485.6 and 462.2 for Holstein, Simmental and crosses, respectively. BWs of sex were 482 kg for both bulls and heifers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in HCW and DP% between sexes. HCW of bulls and heifers were 257.68 and 245.58 kg, respectively. DP% for bulls and heifers were 53.68 % and 51.15 % respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in HCW and DP% between breeds. HCW and DP% of Simmentals were greater than the other breeds while they were not significant (P>0.05) for Holstein and Crosses. There was no significant (P>0.05) breed and sex interaction for HCW and DP%. Simmental bulls and heifers were heavier than those of other breeds for HCW and DP%. It was observed that the performance of bulls and heifers of Crosses were better than Holstein bulls and heifers performance.

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BOZKURT Y., DOGAN C. 2018, CARCASS PERFORMANCE OF HEIFERS AND BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 31-34.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MULTIGRAIN AND COMPOSITE FLOURS BASED ON WHEAT, RYE AND HULLED OAT

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Giorgiana BLAGA, Iuliana APRODU, Iuliana BANU

The chemical composition, functionality and thermo-mechanical properties of the composite flours obtained by blending wheat (80-60%), rye (10-20%) and hulled oat (10-20%) flours were compared with the multigrain flours obtained through milling the equivalent blends of wheat, rye and hulled oat. The flours were obtained using an experimental roller mill. The composite flours had higher ash, fat, crude fiber and protein contents compared to the corresponding multigrain flours. However, the quality of proteins from multigrain flour was better than of the composite flours. Differences in terms of particles size of flours were observed between composite and multigrain flours, the modules ranging from 2.50 to 2.52 and from 2.78 to 2.87, respectively. The Mixolab parameters defining starch gelatinization, gel stability during heating and starch retrogradation were lower for composite flours compared to the multigrain flour. Due to the disruption of gluten network formed by wheat, the specific volume of bread decrease with increasing the level of rye and hulled oat in wheat, from 1.84 to 1.63 cm3 and from 1.93 to 1.71 cm3 for composite and multigrain flours, respectively.

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BLAGA G., APRODU I., BANU I. 2018, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MULTIGRAIN AND COMPOSITE FLOURS BASED ON WHEAT, RYE AND HULLED OAT . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 261-265.

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EVOLUTION OF REPRODUCTION INDICES IN HOLSTEIN COWS FROM ROMANIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1
Written by Alina Elena CUVLIUC, Gheorghe Emil MĂRGINEAN Alexandru KELEMEN, Livia VIDU

The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the main reproduction indices registered by the Holstein cows from Romania, in regard with the correlation between their values and the economic efficiency of the exploitation of this category. The data processed for this paper were collected between 2012 and 2017, and the comparison of the results was made with the results obtained in Romania 20 years ago by another author. The indicators evaluated were: the calving interval, defined as the number of days passed between two consecutive calves, the dry period, represented by the period in which the cows aren't milked and the age of the first parturition, expressed in days. The comparison of the data was done based on the following statistics, determined using the Excel software: mean, mean error, standard deviation, and coefficient of variability. The data presented in this paper were collected from 59 farms located throughout Romania and correspond to 40,770 complete lactations. The overall trend of the values recorded by these indices was improving over time.

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CUVLIUC A.E., MARGINEAN KELEMEN G.E.A., VIDU L. 2018, COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EVOLUTION OF REPRODUCTION INDICES IN HOLSTEIN COWS FROM ROMANIA . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LXI, Issue 1, ISSN 2285-5750, 172-175.


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