ACCUMULATION OF LEAD (Pb) IN SCARDINIUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS AND CERATOPHYLLUM DEMERSUM FROM FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM BIOSPHERE RESERVE SREBARNA, BULGARIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Stefan HRISTOV, Diana KIRIN

Concentration of heavy metals in Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L., 1758) found in Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (Northeastern Bulgaria) was examined in 25 fish individuals from every age group and season. The concentration of heavy metals was investigated by mineralization and subsequent atomic absorption spectrophotometry (according to the requirements of the methodology of the pollutants). To ensure the comparability of results the following standards were complied: 1. Sample collection and storage - ISO 5667-3/4:1995; etc. Fish sampling and analysis were carried out in compliance with National Program for Biomonitoring of Bulgaria (MEW, 1999). Particular the concentrations of Pb in Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Ceratophyllum demersum (L.), sediments and water were studied. Bioconcentration factor (BCF=C fish tissues;macrophytes/C water;sediments) for Pb in the tissues of fish and macrophytes were estimated and discussed. Biomagnification factors (BMF=C fish tissues/C macrophites) for Pb in the tissues of fish were estimated and discussed. The chemical analysis showed accumulation of Pb mainly in the fish bones as compared to the accumulation of the respective metal in the fish muscles. Biomagnification factors of Pb in Scardinius erythrophthalmus compared to Ceratophyllum demersum were evaluated. The mean concentration of Pb in the muscles of Scardinius erythrophthalmus was established to greatly exceed the reference values for lead in fish meat from Regulation No 31 of 29 July 2004 on the maximum levels of pollutants in food.

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Hristov S., Kirin D. 2014, ACCUMULATION OF LEAD (Pb) IN SCARDINIUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS AND CERATOPHYLLUM DEMERSUM FROM FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM BIOSPHERE RESERVE SREBARNA, BULGARIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5803, 290-297.

ALTERATION IN RUMINAL FERMENTATION: THE EFFECT OF MEGASPHAERA ELSDENII INOCULATION ON SUBACUTE RUMINAL ACIDOSIS (SARA) IN VITRO

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Huzur Derya UMUCALILAR, Nurettin GULSEN, Ahmet GUNER, Armagan HAYIRLI, Ozcan Baris CITIL

SARA is a serious herd problem in intensive dairy and beef operations because of triggering other metabolic disorders and causing lactation-fertility losses. SARA was induced in vitro to evaluate the effectiveness of Megasphaera elsdenii inoculation. Rumen fluid was collected from 2 ruminally cannulated Holstein heifers. Medium was prepared by mixing macromineral (200 ml), micromineral (0.1 ml), buffer (200 ml), reduction (40 ml) and resazurin (1 ml) solutions as well as distilled water (400 ml). The media were then added with 1) a test diet consisting (g/kg) of 550-soluble starch, 260- glucose, 60-cellulose, 70-cellobiose and 60-tripticase, 2) ground wheat and 3) ground corn, at levels of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 100 g/l. After determining their levels causing SARA as reflected by pH (~5.3) in preliminary experimentation, the substrates (test diet, 40 g/l; wheat, 30 g/l; corn, 50 g/l) were incubated with presence of 0, 105, 107, and 109 cfu M. elsdenii per ml at 39°C for 24 h. Rumen parameters were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. There was substrate, but not inoculum level and substrate by inoculum interaction effects on measurements. The data confirm that increasing level of starch-rich feedstuffs leads to acidosis as reflected by decreased pH and the Ac:Pr ratio and increased lactate concentration. However, addition of M. elsdenii into media, one of the predominant lactate-utilizing bacteria failed to reverse SARA in vitro.

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Umucalilar H. D., Gulsen N., Guner A., Hayirli A., Citil O. B. 2014, ALTERATION IN RUMINAL FERMENTATION: THE EFFECT OF MEGASPHAERA ELSDENII INOCULATION ON SUBACUTE RUMINAL ACIDOSIS (SARA) IN VITRO. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5768, 115-117.

ANALYSIS CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR GENES IN KARAKUL SHEEP ON MILK PRODUCTION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by ANALYSIS CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR GENES IN KARAKUL SHEEP ON MILK PRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is to verify if the genes that determine the colour of lamb pelts of Karakul type influences the milk production. In other words, we have seen if the lamb pelt colours are associated with characters related to milk production. The biological material was composed of sheep population belonging to the Botosani Karakul breed. Sheep of the six colour varieties of this breed were taken in the experiment. The experimental conditions were assured equally for all sheep varieties. The first mathematical processing is a statistical description of the data depending on colour groups. The statistical description refers to the calculation of statistical parameters (average, standard deviation etc.). The average variation of colour groups was graphically represented. The representation was made also as a histogram depicting the standard deviation, too. The variance analysis was performed. Two homogeneity tests of variance are used to see the legitimacy of the analysis of variance: Leaven and Brown- Forsthe; the relation between average and standard deviation was graphically represented to see if it is linear. Comparative analysis of averages was done with different test: LSD, Sheff, Newman-Keuls, Duncan, Tukey. Data processing was performed with a statistical program. Analysis of variance shows that, in general, the colour of hair fibre does not significantly influence the milk production.

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Groza M., Hrincă G., Brădățan G., Nechifor I., Florea M. 2014, ANALYSIS CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR GENES IN KARAKUL SHEEP ON MILK PRODUCTION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5754, 43-48.

ANIMAL SCIENCE LEXICON STRUCTURE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Izabela OPREA

Our work will follow the major terminological lines requested by the new theories in the field. However for the beginning, we’ll follow the General Terminology Theory and we’ll make an overview of the general, specialized and technical lexicons, every terminologist has to work with. We’ll also exploit the difference between word and term, because we consider it to be an essential aspect not only for the interpreter and translator but also for the specialist. As a second research line, we’ll make an overview of the terminological entry due to its major importance in the treatment of any specialized text or speech. We know well that every terminological entry includes information on the concept related to a specialized field but also on related terms. Thus, the terminologist will deal with the fields related to the term (main term, grammar value, etymology, status, syntagms, synonyms) and on the concept (domain, sub-domain, definition, concept representation, explanatory context and relations among concepts). In order to better understand the treated terms we’ll also try to create a structure of the animal science lexicon, guiding ourselves on the syntactic aspect and taking into account the conceptual aspect for a future work.

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Oprea I. 2014, ANIMAL SCIENCE LEXICON STRUCTURE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5787, 204-207.

BEE COLONIES EXPLOITATION AT APPLE BLOSSOM POLLINATION IN THE ORCHARDS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Valentina CEBOTARI, Ion BUZU

It was done an experiment in order to test comparative the three methods (ways) of hives placement on the ground at the apple pollination, in 3 analogous intensive orchards, with four sorts, that are compatible to the pollination, of 10 hectares each, which were located at a distance of 600 m from each other. In all sectors of the orchard, bee colonies have been assigned with the charge of 3 families/ha. In the first sector (I Batch - control) of orchard, hives with bee colonies were located at the edge of the orchard (sector) in the front side of rows. In the second sector (II batch), the hives were located on the technologic road which separated in the centre the sector of orchard, perpendicular to fruit trees rows. The distance between hives was 10 m from each other. In the third sector of the orchard (III batch), the hives were located between the trees rows, in line, at a distance of 100 m from each other and over every 7th row of trees. In each experimental batch were rated the free entomophily pollination results (crossed) and isolated (auto pollination). It was found that, in the Ist batch, frequency of bees visit at tree blossom, has been weaker in the first days of hives placement, but was pretty good in batches II and III, even from first day. With the increase of air temperature, in all batches was registered a growth tendency of bees visits frequency at blossom. The results of the experiment, have shown that free pollination (cross) entomophily (with predominant participation in proportion of 90 - 95% of honey bees) of apple trees in the orchard ensures the flowers fertilization, depending of beehives location on the field, at the level of 22.2 – 47.5%, that is 13.8-22.6 times higher, compared with the isolated pollination - auto pollination (1.5 – 1.6%). Therefore, it has been confirmed, once again, the conclusion of many researchers, that, the participation of honey bees at pollination of apple's culture is an indisputable necessary measure. Uniform and proportional placement of bee hives inside the orchard, between the rows, in line, at a distance of 100 m from each other, and over every 7th row of trees, ensures a significant increase, compared to the control batch(located at the orchards edge), of bees visit frequency to the flowers is 2.4 times more (td = 20.0; P<0.001), of the bees flight intensity (with and without balls) with 24.5 – 53.3% (td = 3.5 – 4.8; P<0.001), of collected pollen quantity - with 46.2% (td = 2.8; P<0.01), of flowers fertilizing degree - with 2.1 times (td = 14.4; P<0.001) and, compared to traditional methods of hives placement (on the technological roads of the orchard), ensured the growth of bees visits frequency on blossom - with 74.4% (td = 12.9; P<0.001), of collected pollen quantity from apple - with 17.5 % (td = 2.4; P<0.05), and of fertilization degree of flowers - with 36.9% (td = 7.0; P<0.001).

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Cebotari V., Buzu I. 2014, BEE COLONIES EXPLOITATION AT APPLE BLOSSOM POLLINATION IN THE ORCHARDS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5782, 181-188.

COLD SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN PROCESSING OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Gholamhassan ASADI, Ebrahim HOSSEINI

The quality and safety of food and most agricultural products during storage time in cold stores and distribution is highly dependent on management and monitoring of time-temperature history concept. Control of temperature should be taken into account throughout the cold chain, from farm or factory to consumers ( i.e. farm-to-fork) , to ensure food safety and hygiene and to maintain product quality. Microbiological and biochemical changes take place in food stuffs, and therefore the end quality depends on the temperature and moisture history of products. In order to control the end quality, it is therefore necessary to trace and control the temperature. The Radio frequency identity (RFID) and the Temperature monitoring tags are showing a future in completing the cold chain of perishable products (such as dairy, meat, seafood, fruit and vegetables). Time-Temperature indicators or integrators labels (TTIs) are another traceability tools that could be used as an intelligent shelf life decision system for quality optimization of the food and agricultural products during chill chain. In this paper some important tools for traceability and monitoring of safety and quality of main agricultural products in cold supply chain were reviewed.

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Asadi G., Hosseini E. 2014, COLD SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN PROCESSING OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5791, 223-227.

COMPARATIVE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULL AND BOAR SEMEN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Cristiana DIACONESCU, Mirela MATEI, Georgeta TĂLPUȘ, Paul TĂPĂLOAGĂ

There are numerous specialized studies of the physicochemical and biochemical aspects of bull and boar semen, but this paper highlights additional enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes that behave as sperm defense mechanism against of oxygen free radicals(the protection of membrane lipids against oxidative damage). Such a comparative study was performed from a physicochemical (pH, buffering capacity) and biochemical ( seminal fructose content, total protein, total lipids, total cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activity, glutamate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and acrosin activity) point of view for 10 samples of boar and bull seminal plasma. The investigation showed smaller values of total protein, fructose, lipids and total cholesterol in the boar seminal plasma samples than in the bull seminal plasma samples (the decrease was significant, P <0.05). LDH and GDH activity in bull sperm is increased compared to the boar (P< 0.05), which leads to the idea that the anaerobic degradation of fructose (fructolise) in which LDH is involved, as well as the oxidation of the amino acids where GDH is involved are both processes that take place more intensively in bull sperm than in the boar one. Acrozine of boar sperm cells showed an increased activity compared with that of bull sperm (P< 0.05), because the intracellular pH of boar sperm (7.3-7.9) is closer to the optimal action pH for this enzyme (8,0). SOD activity in both the sperm extract and the seminal plasma of the bovines is increased compared to the ones from boar samples(P<0.01), which explains the higher resistance to lipid peroxidation of the bovine sperm compared to all other animal species. Regarding glutathione peroxidase activity, similarly to SOD activity, it is greatly increased in the extract of bovine sperm compared to bovine seminal plasma. In the boar samples, no traces of glutathione peroxidase could be found.

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Diaconescu C., Matei M., Tălpuș G., Tăpăloagă P. 2014, COMPARATIVE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULL AND BOAR SEMEN. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5773, 141-145.

CRYOGENIC CHANGES OF LIPID DURING PRESERVATION OF SPERM ANIMAL FARM

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Vladimir BUZAN, Gheorghe BORONCIUC, Ion BALAN, Ion MEREUȚA, Nicolae ROȘCA

The solution of the problems of cryopreservation of sperm of farm animals is determined largely by the intermolecular interactions of cellular components of reproductive cells. Therefore, the aim of the research was the study of the contribution of the lipid components in the manifestation of adaptive-compensatory changes of gametes of animals in hypothermic conditions. Experimental investigations were carried out using sperm of the boars of Large White breed, the roosters of Rhode Island Red breed and the bulls of Black and White breed. Isolation of plasmatic membranes of spermatozoa was conducted according to the method developed by Ivanov and Porfiry (1981) in our modification (Hayk et. al, 1993). The obtained results proved that the phospholipids in the process of cryopreservation of sperm of farm animals are exposed to the greatest changes, while the cholesterol content is more stable. Also, the molar ratio phospholipids:cholesterol was changed in the direction of value “1” after cooling and freezing of sperm. Decrease of the ratio phospholipids:cholesterol is one of the mechanisms in the system of adaptive-compensatory reactions of spermatozoa at the influence of low temperatures. The study of the adaptation mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers, because in this direction is possible prospects of solving the problems of cryogenic changes during preservation of sperm.

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Buzan V., Boronciuc G., Balan I., Mereuța I., Roșca N. 2014, CRYOGENIC CHANGES OF LIPID DURING PRESERVATION OF SPERM ANIMAL FARM. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5772, 137-140.

DECREASING CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE LEVEL ON BLOOD BY ADDING ORANGE (Citrus sinensis) WASTE ON PADJAJARAN I SHEEP

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Lovita ADRIANI, Elvia HERNAWAN, Ujang HIDAYAT

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste content of flavonoids, namely quercetin and kaempferol, which is expected to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Kaempferol have antibacterial activity, denaturate bacterial cell proteins and cell membranes without damage irreparable. While quercetin has increased permeability porin protein activity on other bacteria. Research about Decreasing Cholesterol and Triglyceride Level on Blood by Adding Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste (SOW) on Sheep Padjajaran 1. This research was done by using Completely Randomized Design with four treatments level i.e. 0, 4, 6 and 8% SOW in ration and repeated five times. The observed variables were blood’s lipid profile, consists of cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride. The observation showed that level of blood’s lipid profile were not significantly changed, but the trend of cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride was decreased. The conclusion is using sweet orange waste (SOW) until 8% has not showed statistically significant differences but have positive effect on lowering blood lipids, i.e. cholesterol level decreased 8.05%, LDL 10%, triglyceride 23.4 % on R4 (8%) while using 4% SOW, triglycerides level decreased 24.8% and decreased 33.53% on using 6%.

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Adriani L., Hernawan E., Hidayat U. 2014, DECREASING CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE LEVEL ON BLOOD BY ADDING ORANGE (Citrus sinensis) WASTE ON PADJAJARAN I SHEEP. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5758, 70-73.

DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREAL SPECIES HARVESTED AT BOOT OR DOUGH STAGE OF MATURITY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII
Written by Behic COSKUN, Gurhan KELES, Fatma INAL, M. Selcuk ALATAS, Serkan ATES

The comparative advantages of winter cereals have not been thoroughly evaluated for their forage production potentials in the semi-arid conditions of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. The effect of maturity on dry matter (DM) production (t/ha) and nutritive value of the whole-crop cereal forage of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack) and oat (Avena sativa L.) were investigated at booting and dough stages of the forage cereals. Barley had higher (P<0.001) DM production at booting stage, whereas DM production of triticale, rye and oat was the highest (P<0.001) at the dough stage. Overall, the increase in DM production and digestible DM production with advancing maturity was 34, 42, 60, 49, 51 % and 23, 29, 51, 43, 38 % for barley, wheat, triticale, oat and rye, respectively at dough stage. The metabolizable energy values (ME MJ/kg DM) of cereal forages were higher (P<0.05) at booting stage. Neutral detergent fibre did not differ (P>0.05) with maturity or forage species, while non-fiber carbohydrates increased (P<0.001) with advancing maturity. In conclusion, all cereal crops should be harvested for forage production at their boot stage of maturity to obtain higher nutritive value forage. Barley provided more promising cereal forage at booting stage with its higher DM and digestible DM production. Triticale, rye and oat produced more DM at dough stage with triticale having higher digestible nutrients indicating its superior value compared to other cereal forages at this stage. However, the choice of cereal for forage production should include consideration of class and breed of livestock to be fed, agronomic characteristics and soil type requirements under the semi-arid conditions of Central Anatolia.

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Coskun B., Keles G., Inal F. , Alatas S. M., Ates S. 2014, DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREAL SPECIES HARVESTED AT BOOT OR DOUGH STAGE OF MATURITY. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5761, 85-89.


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