CHARACTERISTIC AND GROWTH PATTERN OF BRACHIARIA HUMIDICOLA CV. TULLY UNDERNEATH COCONUTS PLANTATION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Selvie D. ANIS, M.A. CHOZIN, David A. KALIGIS

The aims of the study were to determine growth characteristics and the pattern of growth of B. humidicola grown underneath coconut trees. The experiment was conducted at coconut research center area (BALITKA) Manado since April 2011 until July 2011. The variables consisted of growth and development based on the numbers of tillers, numbers of nodes, and length of stolon. Data were calculated with simple analysis of the mean and the standard deviations, and the regression equations. The results shows that number of nodes and the length of stolon steadily increased up to 10 weeks after planting, but the maximum number of tillers up to 8 weeks after planting and start to decrease at 10 weeks after planting. Furthermore, the increased of nodes, stolons and the number of tillers are positively corelated with the ages of plant and followed the normal distribution curves of growth.

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ANIS S. D., CHOZIN M.A., KALIGIS D.A. 2013 CHARACTERISTIC AND GROWTH PATTERN OF BRACHIARIA HUMIDICOLA CV. TULLY UNDERNEATH COCONUTS PLANTATION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 82-85.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FODDER GROWN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Larisa CAISIN, Vasile HAREA, Vasile VRANCEAN

The chemical composition and nutritive value of fodder depends on many factors, the most important of which are the conditions for plant growth (climate, soil, fertilizers, agricultural machinery), species, stage of plant development, the way of harvesting, storage conditions. The aim of the research was to study the differences in the chemical composition of the fodder grown in different zones of the Republic of Moldova, the identification and comparative analysis of their actual nutritional value, analysis and comparison with the data given in specialty literature. The laboratory studies of the local fodder in Moldova, selected at the farms of the State Enterprise 'Moldsuinhibrid' (Orhei) and E.T.S. (Maximovka) revealed differences in chemical composition and general nutritive value that depends on the area of cultivation, as well as in comparison with the data used in calculating the recipes of fodder mixtures and combined fodder for animals and poultry. Differences in chemical composition and general nutritive value were observed in almost all fodder in the Republic of Moldova, selected from different places, as well as in comparison with the data used in the country to balance the diets of cattle and poultry.

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CAISIN L., HAREA V., VRANCEAN V. 2013 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FODDER GROWN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 61-66.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE QUALITIES OF COWS FROM MOLDOVIAN TYPE OF BLACK SPOTTED AND RED OF STEPPE BREEDS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Serghei CHILIMAR

There were studied the qualities of milk production of cows from Moldovan type of Black Spotted breed. There was proved that cows with three or more lactations of this type have milk production 4016 ± 163.2 kg or 74 kg more than cows of Red of Steppe breed that were in the same conditions of feeding and maintenance. Level of obtained production is less than the genetic potential of new Black Spotted type. There are proposed some measures of a fuller achievement of genetic potential in cattle growth in the household sector.

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CHILIMAR S. 2013 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE QUALITIES OF COWS FROM MOLDOVIAN TYPE OF BLACK SPOTTED AND RED OF STEPPE BREEDS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 260-267.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE C.E.E.CS’ POSITION IN THE EU-27 POULTRY MEAT PRODUCTION AND FOREIGN TRADE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Ion PÎRVUTOIU1, Agatha POPESCU2

The paper aimed to analyze the CEECs’ contribution to the EU-27 poultry livestock, meat production, export, import and trade balance in the period 2007-2009 based on the FAO Stat data, using the index, score and comparison methods. The CEECs contribute by 25.13 % to the EU-27 poultry livestock, by 22.28 % to poultry meat production, by 14.73 % to meat export and 17.74 % to meat import, by 15.45 % to meat export value and by 12.11 % to meat import value and finally by 54.38 % to poultry meat trade balance. As a conclusion, the CEECs’ access to the EU has had a benefic effect on the EU poultry market and also on the coverage of consumer’s need.

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PÎRVUŢOIU I., POPESCU A. 2013 CONSIDERATIONS ON THE C.E.E.CS’ POSITION IN THE EU-27 POULTRY MEAT PRODUCTION AND FOREIGN TRADE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 253-259.

DAIRY SECTOR IN ALBANIA-CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Ylli BIÇOKU, Merita URUÇI

Agriculture still remains subsistence-oriented due to a very small average size of farms (1.26 ha per family) and 85,8% are mixed farms. Hence, only 30–40% of crop and livestock products are being sold. Generally, livestock production is seen as a backbone of Albania's agriculture. The objective of this analysis is to give a quantitative and qualitative description of the Albanian dairy sector, its challenges and perspective. About 75% of household incomes are contributed by sales of livestock products. The productivity and the economic efficiency are at low level. Evaluation of performance at dairy farm level is not possible because data are missing. The statistical yearbook of Ministry of Agriculture and Consumer Protection does not include information for each product at farm level. To improve the situation several economic and policy programs are needed to increase the productivity of the dairy sector, the quality of products, to implement the good livestock practices, good hygiene practices and animal welfare standards, as dairy sector provides 21.5% of the value of agricultural production.

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Biçoku Y., Uruçi M. 2013, DAIRY SECTOR IN ALBANIA-CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 197-202.

DAPHNIA TEST – A SHORTCUT FOR HUMAN HEALTH PROTECTION ASSESSMENT

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Rodne NASTOVA, Nedeljka NIKOLOVA, Vasil KOSTOV

Daphnia magna toxicity testing was evaluated as a method for estimating the potential trace metals hazard to the environment. Electroplating whole effluent evaluation was used as case study... D. magna proved to be sensitive enough to Zn, Cr and to a certain extent to Ni to serve as a quick but reliable method for assessing possible human health hazard by bioconcentrated trace metals via freshwater fish consumption.

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NASTOVA R., NIKOLOVA N., KOSTOV V. 2013 DAPHNIA TEST – A SHORTCUT FOR HUMAN HEALTH PROTECTION ASSESSMENT. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 349-353.

DEVELOPMENT OF HEAT-STABLE FRUIT FILLINGS USING GELLAN GUM AS STABILIZER

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Janna CROPOTOVA, Svetlana POPEL, Lidia PARSHAKOVA

This research was designed in aim to determine the optimum percentage of gellan gum for the development of heatstable fruit fillings with a wide range of soluble solids – from 40 to 70°Brix, which maintain its sensory and textural characteristics before, during and after baking on the basis of Response Surface Methodology. The low acyl gellan gum Kelcogel F was selected to be used in heat-stable fruit filling’s development due to its excellent thermal and freeze-thaw stability. This high-viscosity hydrocolloid possesses curative properties for sufferers of hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes and forms a firm gel in as little as two hours, delivering full strength in less than 5 hours. The fruit fillings’ samples with the same pH and different soluble solids content were prepared locally from fruit pulp, sugar, low acyl gellan gum Kelcogel F and citric acid. The produced fruit fillings were put through standard bakery test to evaluate their heat-stability by determining bakery index (BI) through measuring the diameter of a fruit filling’s sample before and after baking process performed under exactly fixed conditions: at a temperature of 220°C for 20 minutes. The rheological behavior of the fruit fillings prepared on the basis of gellan gum has been investigated by performing experimental measurements at the rotational rheometer Rheotest RV2. There were obtained the final equations in terms of actual factors in order to describe the influence of soluble solids and gellan gum on fruit filling's heat-stable, sensory and rheological properties. The adequacy of the regression equations was evaluated by the F-test for analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical package STATISTICA v.6 and has shown that the models were statistically significant.

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CROPOTOVA J., POPEL S., PARSHAKOVA L. 2013 DEVELOPMENT OF HEAT-STABLE FRUIT FILLINGS USING GELLAN GUM AS STABILIZER. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 291-295.

DYNAMIC STUDIES IN BROILER CHICKEN NATURAL IMMUNE FACTORS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Tsvetoslav KOYNARSKI, Lilyan SOTIROV

Natural immune factors are the first defense mechanism against variety of pathogenic agents. Both the blood serum lysozyme and alternative pathway of complement activation play significant role in stock animals’ welfare. In this study we decided to investigate the dynamics of the aforementioned humoral factors among two of the most popular broiler chicken hybrids – Ross and Cobb. Both hybrids show relatively high concentrations of blood serum lysozyme during the first week of life (Ross-7,79 and Cobb-11,06 mg/L). Which could be explained by the small amounts of yolk sack, left from the egg embryo. During the second week the levels of blood serum lysozyme lowers dramatically. Through the next weeks the concentration of blood lysozyme increases gradually among both hybrids. The comparative analysis show faster and higher levels in favor of the Ross hybrid. The dynamics of the alternative pathway of complement activation (APCA) were relatively similar. Both hybrids have moderate levels of APCA activity through the first week (Ross- 325,32 CH50 and Cobb – 346,94 CH50), which lowers in the second week of live and grows gradually trough the life of the bird. Compared with the Cobb, the Ross hybrid exhibited higher levels of APCA, which gives these birds better protection against pathogens. Similar results for both factors of interest, were obtained among the hybrids’ parent flocks. The results of our experiment unambiguously show better humoral immunity protection in favor of the Ross hybrid.

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Koynarski T., Sotirov L. 2013 DYNAMIC STUDIES IN BROILER CHICKEN NATURAL IMMUNE FACTORS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 144-147.

EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL MOLTED BROWN LAYING HENS ON PRODUCTION OF DHA ENRICHED EGGS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Natasha GJORGOVSKA, Kiril FILEV, Vasil KOSTOV, Vesna LEVKOV

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the possibility of production docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3 – DHA) enriched eggs using very old molted hens. Two groups Hisex Brown molted laying hens, 60 wks and 80 wks old, were assigned in 2 subgroups and fed diets enriched with omega 3 fatty acid (especially DHA).The source of DHA was fish oil and fish meal. The amount of omega 3 in feed offered to the experimental hens was 792 mg and 1180 mg C22:6n-3 in kg feed. Feed consumption was restricted on 120 g feed/day/hen. The intensity of egg production at 60 wks and 80 wks old molted hens was similar, 77.93% and 77.86% in subgroups fed lower amount of DHA and 79.28% and 89.16% n subgroups fed with higher amount of DHA. Younger molted hens, 60 wks old, have better egg production then older. Lower level of DHA in feed induced egg production 136,61 and 140.73 mg/egg, and higher amount of DHA in feed induced egg production richer with DHA, from 159.41 to 170.49 mg/egg. Molted older laying hens can produced richer eggs with DHA long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

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GJORGOVSKA N., FILEV K., KOSTOV V., LEVKOV V. 2013 EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL MOLTED BROWN LAYING HENS ON PRODUCTION OF DHA ENRICHED EGGS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 78-81.

EFFECT OF FREE CHOICE FEEDING BASED ON EMMER, TRITICALE AND WHEAT TO JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA) ON PERFORMANCE, INNER ORGANS AND INTESTINAL VISCOSITY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Yusuf KONCA, Selma BÜYÜKKILIÇ BEYZI

When choose feeding applied in poultry breeding birds can adjust their ration and this may be considered in terms of animal welfare and performance and carcass quality improvement. The complete ration costs may be higher than individual feedstuffs. When breeders achieved satisfactory results with choice feeding based on cereals they can obtain economical advantages. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of free choice feeding based on emmer (Triticum dicoccon), triticale (Triticale) and wheat (Triticum sp.) on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) growth performance, inner organ traits and intestinal viscosity. In the experiment, basal diet and ground emmer, triticale and wheat were offered separately in two different feeders. The treatments were: (1) Control (C, basal diet), (2) C and emmer (CE) (3) C and triticale (CT) and (4) C and wheat (CW). A total of 240 three-day-old Japanese quail were randomly distributed to 4 equal groups with 6 replicate and fed for 35 d. Body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were determined at 3, 10, 24 and 38 d of age. Carcass and inner organ weights were determined at end of the experiment. Intestinal viscosity was measured. There was no difference among the group in terms of BW at 3 d (p>0.05), but on d 10, 24 BW of C group was higher than other groups and BW of wheat group was higher than CE and CT group at 10 d (p<0.01). The BW of CE group was higher than C and CW group at 38 d (p<0.01). The body weight gain (BWG) in the C group was higher than CE and CT groups at 3 to 10 days but C group’s BWG was lower than CE and CW groups at 24 to 38 days (p<0.01). The BWG of CE group’s was higher than C and CW groups at 3 to 38 d (p<0.01). The FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of quail were not statistically influenced (p>0.05) by the treatments. There was no difference among the groups in terms of mortality. The carcass yield, liver, small intestine, heart and total gastrointestinal tract ratio were not statistically influenced by the free choice feeding based on triticale emmer and wheat (p>0.05). However, in the wheat group’s gizzard ratio was higher than triticale and emmer groups and in this group abdominal fat pad was higher than other groups (p<0.01). Intestinal viscosity of quail was not influenced by choice feeding (p>0.05). These results show that ground emmer, triticale and wheat may be given separately together as basal ration and some advantageous in performance may gain with choice feeding based on emmer.

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Konca Y., Buyukkilic Beyzi S. 2013 EFFECT OF FREE CHOICE FEEDING BASED ON EMMER, TRITICALE AND WHEAT TO JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA) ON PERFORMANCE, INNER ORGANS AND INTESTINAL VISCOSITY. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 113-119.


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