EVALUATION OF FRUCTAN CONTENTS IN THE TAPROOTS OF PLANTS LACTUCA SERRIOLA L. AND SONCHUS OLERACEUS L.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Nadezhda PETKOVA, Panteley DENEV

The current research aimed to present the evaluation of the underground parts of two widespread plants in Bulgaria - prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) and annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as a source of inulin-type fructans. The sequential ethanol and water extractions from their dry taproots were carried out. The amount of extracted fructans was defined by the resorcinol assay. The fructooligosacharides and inulin contents of the obtained extracts were analyzed by TLC and HPLC-RID methods. The total fructan content in the weed plant Sonchus oleraceus L. (19.6% dw) is higher than the fructan level in the roots of Lactuca serriola L (9.56% dw). In the ethanol extracts were observed the presence of monosaccharide glucose and fructose, high level of sucrose and trisaccharides 1-kestose. In the result of the carried analysis, we can conclude that the roots are rich source of fructans as the fructoligosacharides fraction dominates in ethanolic extracts. These plants could not only be consider as weeds, but it have to pay attention to their future possibility to be used as a potential source of fructooligosacharides with prebiotic effect in nutrition formula for animals and human.

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Petkova N., Denev P. 2013 EVALUATION OF FRUCTAN CONTENTS IN THE TAPROOTS OF PLANTS LACTUCA SERRIOLA L. AND SONCHUS OLERACEUS L.. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 125-134.

EXAMINATION OF CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN FISH IN THE ACCUMULATION STREZEVO IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Rodne NASTOVA, Vasil KOSTOV, Natasha GJORGOVSKA

In the period from 2007 to 2009 th year, the heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd,? s? Hg) in carp, barbell, catfish and silver carp's muscular tissue, bones and internal organs was examined on three locations in the accumulation Strezevo in the Republic of Macedonia According to Rulebook of maximum allowed quantities of pesticides, metals and metalloid and other toxic substances in the Republic of Macedonia, in our examined samples the concentration of all examined toxic elements was under maximum allowed limits, except lead and cadmium in the following samples: (carp's bones, silver carp's internal organs) on location 3 in accumulation Strezevo in the Republic of Macedonia where lead concentration was 1.07 and 1.81. Cadmium concentration was also increased on the same location in the samples of carp's, silver carp's and barbel's bone tissue as in silver carp's internal organs. Also the concentration of examined insecticides in all samples were significantly under maximum allowed quantities. The results from our examinations have shown that the above mentioned locations in accumulation Strezevo in the Republic of Macedonia are relatively unpolluted. However, for more realistic ecological picture the number of analised samples should be increased.

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Nastova R., Kostov V., Gjorgovska N. 2013, EXAMINATION OF CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN FISH IN THE ACCUMULATION STREZEVO IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 354-357.

FERMENTATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) BAGASSE HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS TO ETHANOL

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Ratu SAFITRI, In-In HANIDAH, Toto SUBROTO

Sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a readily available waste product of cane-sugar processing. The major components of bagasse are cellulose and hemicellulose. The objective of the research was to produce bio-ethanol from hydrolizate of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse which hydrolyzed by combination of acid and enzymeand further fermented by three types of microorganisms, respectively P. stipitis CBS 5773, or S. cerevisiae D1/P3GI, or Z. mobilis 0056 FNCC. The experiment employed descriptive analyses in triplicates. The result were as follows: effectiveness of Z. mobilis 0056 FNCC was highest for producing bio-ethanol, respectively 18.99 g/L within 3 hours. S. cerevisiae D1/P3GI produced 17.05 g/L bio-ethanol within 12 hours, and P. stipitis CBS 5773 13.03 g/L bioethanol within 24 hours.

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Safitri R., Hanidah I. I., Subroto T. 2013, FERMENTATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) BAGASSE HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS TO ETHANOL. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 296-299.

GENETIC CHARACTERISATION OF POPULATIONS OF CATTLE OF HOLSTEIN BREED, CULTIVATED IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Alexandra KONSTANDOGLO, Valentin FOKSHA

Are present the results of research and analysis of the antigenic spectrum of blood groups of animals in the Holstein breed SRL 'DOCSANCOM' and STE 'Maximovca'. In both certified herds in EAB locus there is a high frequency of antigen G2, O2, Y2, E'2, O ', Q', G ', which is characteristic for the Holstein breed, many breeds black-and-white root as well as Moldavian type black-and-white cattle. By EAC-locus10 of the studied antigens R1 antigen is not revealed among animals STE 'Maximovca'. High frequency of antigen E, R2, W and X2 characterizes the analyzed populations of animals. For single-factor locuses EAJ, EAL, EAM and EAZ observed almost the same concentration of the corresponding antigen in compared animal populations. The average frequency of antigen, or saturation of the studied populations of antigenic factors in the population of animals herd SRL 'DOCSANCOM' is 23.7%, in the animal herds STE 'Maximovca'-24, 5%. The genetic distance between populations of both analyzed populations is of little importance - 0.0687, so they sufficiently close to each other. Concentration of main allele in the herd SRL 'DOCSANKOM' is 0,6213, the herd STE 'Maximovca'-0.6667, of rare 0.2129 and 0.2727 respectively. The degree of homozygosity in the analyzed population is low, at 5.0% (SRL 'DOCSANKOM') and 6.0% (STE 'Maximovca').

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KONSTANDOGLO A., FOKSHA V. 2013 GENETIC CHARACTERISATION OF POPULATIONS OF CATTLE OF HOLSTEIN BREED, CULTIVATED IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 52-60.

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF KARYA AND ÇINE ÇAPARI SHEEP

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Onur YILMAZ, Ibrahim CEMAL, Orhan KARACA, Nezih ATA, Semih SEVIM, Mehmet OZTURK

Genetic diversity of Karya (n=117) and Çine Çapari sheep (n=123), which is indigenous breed of Turkey, were investigated by 10 ovine microsatellite markers proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). A total of 105 and 115 were observed in Karya and Çine Çapari sheep breed respectively in this study. A wide range of genetic variability was observed as allele number from 7 (OarCP34) to 14 (DYMS1) for Çine Çapari and 6 (OarCP34) to 14 (OARJMP58) in Karya sheep breed. The estimated observed heterozygosities (Ho) were between 0.450 and 0.950 in Çine Çapari and 0.541 and 0.841 in Karya sheep breed. The highest genetic identity (0.8131) was observed between Karya and Çine Çapari sheep breed. The results obtained in the present study will help to interpret the genetic structure of indigenous Karya and Çine Çapari sheep.

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YILMAZ O., CEMAL I., KARACA O., ATA N., SEVIM S., OZTURK M. 2013 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF KARYA AND ÇINE ÇAPARI SHEEP. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 31-35.

GENETIC EVALUATION IN A POPULATION OF FRASINET CYPRINIDS USED FOR SELECTION TO MAXIMIZE MEAT PRODUCTION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE, Horia GROSU, Mioara COSTACHE, Monica MARIN, Daniela RADU, Alin BÂDILITA, Victor NIŢĂ

Genetic improvement of animals is defined as a process of directed change in the productive potential of the hereditary characteristics and the genetic resources of livestock populations in the desired direction by man. Achieving genetic improvement of the population is made by selecting the current generation, animals with the highest value of improvement that real genetic value for bio and ecoeconomic important characters. Breeding value cannot be measured directly in animals, but it can be deduced from phenotypic values of animals. Depending on breeding value, assessed individual is retained or dismissed from reproduction. This study was conducted on a sample of 215 individuals Frasinet crap that came from 9 mother families. Frasinet carp, is part, of the morphological point of view, in a constitutional and productive category of carp breeds, with high degree of improved. This breed is characterized by high body profile, curved back and small caudal peduncle, head and fins. Individuals were reared in intensive system, in the same environmental conditions, from the juvenile stage by 2.5 ages. Each descendant was measured for three morphological characters: body weight (W), maximum body height (H) and body length (l) at the end of the first three summers of growth. Of the total of 215 candidates were retained for breeding 50% at end of each summer of growth. For the phenotypic characterization of the population have been used classical statistic methods and breeding value for each character was calculated based on individual animal model (B.L.U.P.-Animal Model). After selection of candidates, at the end of summer growth, annual genetic progress for body weight was 3.51%; 1.69%; 1.27%; for maximum body height was 1.35%; 0.85%, 0.43% and for body length was 1.10%; 0.80%, 0.44%. Expressed in the unit of character, annual genetic progress for body weight at the end of the third summer selection is higher than that of the first two years of selection. This is due to increase muscle mass and gonad development, both are processes specific to installation of sexual maturity.

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Nicolae C. G., Grosu H., Costache M., Marin M., Radu D., Badilita A, Niţă V. 2013, GENETIC EVALUATION IN A POPULATION OF FRASINET CYPRINIDS USED FOR SELECTION TO MAXIMIZE MEAT PRODUCTION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 358-361.

GREAT BUSTARD RESTOCKING IN EURASIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Cristina GARLEA1, Marcel Th. PARASCHIVESCU1, Florin RADU2

The significant risk of biodiversity loss in Eurasia there is the habitat fragmentation of great bustard (otis tarda). This reduces the flow of individuals between populations. The great bustard is a globally endangered species that has recently suffered dramatic declines due to agriculture intensification as well as other antropical actions. The paper presents a comparative inventory of the population in the sites from Spain up to China. There are presented the threats and the necessary conservation measure for prevention of the extinction of the species, based on the integration of our large data series obtained during the last two decades in the world. The data collection includes informations referring to individual behavior and population dynamics (mating system, dispersal capability, migratory behavior, annual recruitment, mortality, and longevity), habitat availability (carrying capacity, satellite imagery) and genetic structure of the population. The paper also presents the Romanian approach of the great bustard restocking by the development of national center in National Park Comana, using the site of a former tank polygon Mihai Bravu, Giurgiu County. These research works are conducted in the Program of scientific cooperation with Moldavia Republic, in the theme Eco-economics research regarding compared restoration in Romania and Moldavia Republic.

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GARLEA C., PARASCHIVESCU M. T., RADU F. 2013 GREAT BUSTARD RESTOCKING IN EURASIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 203-208.

HELMINTH COMMUNITIES OF FISHES FROM THE RIVER DANUBE AND LAKE SREBARNA, BULGARIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Diana KIRIN, Vladimira HANZELOVÁ, Sonya SHUKEROVA, Stefan HRISTOV, Ludmila TURCEKOVÁ, Marta SPAKULOVA

Ecological monitoring from water of the River Danube and Srebarna Lake was performed using freshwater fishes and their parasites and parasite communities as bioindicators. For an ecological evaluation of the situation of the analyzed freshwater ecosystems, principal biotic indexes were fixed. The analysis of the dominant structure of the found taxa was presented to the level of the component communities. During 2012, 16 species and 181 specimens of freshwater and passage fish were examined with standard techniques for parasites. Six species of examined fish (Aspius aspius (L., 1758) , Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), Chondrostoma nasus (L., 1758), Zingel zingel (L., 1758), Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758) and Lepomis gibbosus (L., 1758) ) were free of parasites. In ten species of fish (Abramis brama (L., 1758), Alburnus alburnus (L., 1758), Alosa pontica (Eichwald, 1838), Ballerus sapa (Pallas, 1811), Barbus barbus (L., 1758), Romanogobio albipinnatus (Lukasch, 1933), Gymnocephalus schraetser (L., 1758), Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas, 1811, Perca fluviatilis L., 1758, Rutilus rutilus (L., 1758)) seven species of parasites (Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832, Diplozoon paradoxum Nordmann, 1832, Nicolla skrjabini (Iwanitzky, 1972), Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudilphi, 1809), Eustrongylides excisus (Jgerskild, 1909) larvae, Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Camallanus truncatus (Rudophi, 1814)) were fixed. New parasite and host records were determined. All fixed parasite species are core for the parasite communities of examined fishes with the exception of N. skrjabini. Bioindicator significance of parasite species was studied.

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Kirin D., Hanzelova V., Shukerova S., Hristov S., Turcekova L., Spakulova M. 2013, HELMINTH COMMUNITIES OF FISHES FROM THE RIVER DANUBE AND LAKE SREBARNA, BULGARIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 333-340.

HISTORY OF GENETIC EVALUATION METHODS IN DAIRY CATTLE I. DAUGHTER-DAM COMPARISONS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Horia GROSU, Sorin LUNGU, Pascal Anton OLTENACU

The procedures used on genetic evaluation in dairy cattle are presented, during the last century. These procedures have evolved greatly over the years, from the simple dam-daughter comparison to animal model, from single trait to multiple trait analysis, and from lactation to test-day model. Nowadays, more emphasis is put on the incorporation marker genetic information, in order to get so named GEVB-genomic breeding value. From historical point of view, there are four category of methods: 1) Methods based on averages (1902-1952); 2) methods based on selection index procedure (B.L.P;1952-1970.); 3) Methods based on mixed model equations (B.L.U.P.; 1971-2000) and 4) Methods based on BLUP and Genomics (2001-present). The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the genetic evaluation methods in dairy cattle, starting with first category of methods: ’’the Methods based on averages’’ or Daughter-Dam Comparisons. This group of methods cover the period 1906-1950, and take in account the following 12 indexes. For each index the formula is given and also the main advantages and disadvantages are presented.

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GROSU H., LUNGU S., OLTENACU P. A. 2013 HISTORY OF GENETIC EVALUATION METHODS IN DAIRY CATTLE I. DAUGHTER-DAM COMPARISONS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 25-30.

HYDROLYSIS OF SAGO PITH POWDER (METROXYLON SAGO ROTTB.) IN ENZYMATIC AND FERMENTATION OF HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS CBS 5773, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE D1/P3GI, AND ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS FNCC 0056 TO ETHANOL

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI
Written by Ratu SAFITRI, Abi WIYONO

Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb) is an abundant source of biomass and have a high starch content, which can be used as a source of renewable energy (bioethanol). The purpose of this study is to obtain the best microorganisms to ferment sugars of the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of sago pith into bioethanol. The research method is experimental in the laboratory consisting of starch hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar pith of sago pith of sago starch hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis CBS 5773, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D1/P3GI, and Zymomonas mobilis FNCC 0056 in single culture. Pith of sago flour used in this study contained 77.5% starch, 4.86% hemicellulose, cellulose 4.63%, 3.07% lignin and 10.12% water. Through gelatinization and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar, the sugar concentrations obtained in this study was 47.95% and 61.66% DE. Hydrolysates were used containing 10% sugar, fermented ethanol showed that ethanol production by Pichia stipitis of 2.45% without pH adjustment, 2.19% with a pH adjustment treatment, the concentration of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 3.65% without adjusting the pH, 2.17% with a pH adjustment, and the concentration of ethanol by Zymomonas mobilis at 1.89% for those without pH adjustment and 0.37% with a pH adjustment.

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SAFITRI R., WIYONO A. 2013 HYDROLYSIS OF SAGO PITH POWDER (METROXYLON SAGO ROTTB.) IN ENZYMATIC AND FERMENTATION OF HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS CBS 5773, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE D1/P3GI, AND ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS FNCC 0056 TO ETHANOL. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science., Vol. LVI, ISSN 2285-5750, 305-310.


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