NUTRIENT CONCENTRATE FERMENTATION BASED SHRIMP WASTE AND EFFECT ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE PHASE LAYER NATIVE CHICKEN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Abun, Tuti WIDJASTUT, Kiki HAETAMI, Denny RUSMANA, Jhondri

Efforts toward improving the quality of waste containing high chitin through bioprocess shrimp waste utilizing Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae, in order to obtain the product (Nutrient Concentrate) quality in order to meet the nutritional needs of local poultry (native chicken). Biological test products in the ration to determine its effectiveness towards achieving the optimal performance needs to be done. Native chicken has an important role as a provider of meat and eggs to be relied. The study was conducted using a laboratory experiment using a completely randomized design, consisting of 6 treatments rations and each repeated four times. Ration treatment: R0 = control diet (15% protein and ME 2,750 kcal/kg); R1 = rations containing 5% Nutrient Concentrate (Protein 15% and ME 2,750 kcal/kg); R2 = ration containing 10% Nutrient Concentrate (Protein 15% and ME 2,750 kcal/kg); R3 = rations containing 15% Nutrient Concentrate (Protein 15% and ME 2,750 kcal/kg); R4 = rations containing 20% Nutrient Concentrate (Protein 15% and ME 2,750 kcal/kg); and RS = standard ration (Protein 18% and ME 2,750 kcal/kg). Variables observed that the performance of native chicken layer phase (egg weight, number of eggs, daily egg production and feed efficiency) and hematological values chicken blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and blood hematocrit). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and differences between treatments were tested by Duncan's multiple range test. The results obtained by the performance of native chicken layer phase with the use Nutrient Concentrate at the rate of 20% in the ration equivalent to the standard ration, the weight of the eggs ranged from 40.51 to 43.46 g/grain, the number of eggs from 32.37 to 33.16 grains/2 months, han-day 53.95% - 55.26% and feed efficiency of 54.02% - 58.95%. ). Values range chicken blood hematological phase layer in the normal range, the number of erythrocytes ranged from 2.06 to 2.16 ×106 /mm3 ; leukocytes from 36.42 to 37.27 ×103 /mm3 ; and hematocrit 33.25% - 34.25%. Nutrient Concentrate can be used as a source of animal protein in the ration formulation native chicken layer phase and use up to the level of 20%.

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Abun, WIDJASTUT T., HAETAMI K., RUSMANA D., Jhondri 2017, NUTRIENT CONCENTRATE FERMENTATION BASED SHRIMP WASTE AND EFFECT ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE PHASE LAYER NATIVE CHICKEN. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 55-60.

PHOSPHOLIPIDS, PHOSPHOLIPID FRACTIONS AND POSSIBILITY OF THEIR STABILIZATION DURING HYPOTHERMIC STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Vladimir BUZAN

Lipids are integral and essential components of the membranes that perform multiple functions in the life of germ cells. They provide the energy reserve, the solubility of various vitamins, the physical thermoregulation of activity of membrane-bound enzymes and other. In accordance with modern data about the molecular organization of biological membranes, the lipids are represented mainly by amphiphile connections: phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol. At the same time phospholipids make up more than 60% of the total number of membrane lipids. In combination with cholesterol they provide fluidity and plastic properties of biological membranes. Based on the above, the purpose of the conducted research was to study the content of phospholipids, their fractions and to determine the possibility of their regulation during hypothermic storage of boar semen at 16-18°C. Using the method of thin-layer chromatography allowed allocating and identifying 6 phospholipid fractions in the reproductive cells of the boar. Among them prevail phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, whereas phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin presents minor factions. In the process of dilution of sperm is observed multidirectional change in their content. It is established that targeted stabilization of the content of phospholipid fractions at the level of native spermatozoa is possible by improving of synthetic mediums. The obtained experimental data can be used for solving the problems of reproduction of pigs.

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BUZAN V. 2016, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, PHOSPHOLIPID FRACTIONS AND POSSIBILITY OF THEIR STABILIZATION DURING HYPOTHERMIC STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 137-140.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUSCLE Biceps femoris AND Longissimus dorsi OF MALE AND FEMALE NEW ZEALAND WHITE CROSSBREED RABBITS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Kusmajadi SURADI, Tri Anggarini Yuniwati FOENAY, Husmy YURMIARTI

In general muscles of male rabbit is more active than the female one, the function in each carcass also more active, suspected there is a different characteristic of muscles in each of male and female rabbit carcass. The purpose of this research is to know the physical characteristics of muscle Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris of New Zealand White Crossbreed Rabbit. Research using the Design Pattern of nested (nested), muscle Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris is nested within the sex of males and females. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test. Variables observed were: muscle acidity (pH), the water holding capacity, and the color, i.e. the brightness (L), reddish (a) and yellowish (b). The results showed that gender has no effecy on pH, Water Holding Capacity and color of muscle of New Zealand White crossbreed rabbit. Acidity (pH), Water Holding Capacity and color of Biceps femoris and Longissimus dorsi of male rabbit had no different, similarly on female rabbit.

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SURADI K., FOENAY T.A.Y., YURMIARTI H. 2017, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUSCLE Biceps femoris AND Longissimus dorsi OF MALE AND FEMALE NEW ZEALAND WHITE CROSSBREED RABBITS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 262-264.

PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN SWISS CATTLE GROWN IN AN INTENSIVE BEEF SYSTEM

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Yalcın BOZKURT, Cihan DOGAN

In this study, it was aimed to compare the physical performances and carcass characteristics of Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle grown in an intensive beef production system. For this purpose, 20 Holstein and 20 Brown Swiss male cattle with an average age of 6 months old were assigned to two feedlot paddocks evenly and fed on the similar ration for 12 months in 2012. The average initial weights of Holstein and Brown Swiss breed animals were 158 and 132 kg respectively. General Linear Model (GLM) procedure was used for the statistical analysis of the data and initial weight and age were taken as covariates to eliminate the weight differences at the start of the experiment. It was found that at the end of the experiment, the differences in final weights were not statistically significant (P˃0.05) and Holstein and Brown Swiss animals reached average final weights of 502 and 493 kg, respectively. Furthermore, there were no significant (P ˃0.05) differences in mean total gains (344 v. 361 kg) and average daily liveweight gains (0.985 v. 1.028 kg). The slaughter weight of the animals was 502 and 493 kg for Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle, respectively. Hot carcass weight was approximately similar for both breeds (264 kg) and Dressing percentages were 52.6 and 53.6% for Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle, respectively. Total fat values were 9.2 and 8.8 kg, Fat ratios were 3.52 and 3.45 % for Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle, respectively. Total bone values were 49.37 and 44.29 kg, Bone ratios were 19.8 and 18.3 % for Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle, respectively. There was only statistical differences (P<0.05) in total bone and bone ratio between breeds. The results indicated that under the Mediterranean climate conditions both breed animals performed similarly and there was no superiority of any breeds over each other although Brown Swiss cattle tended to show better performances. Therefore, both breeds can be recommended for an intensive beef system in the region.

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BOZKURT Y., DOGAN C. 2016, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN SWISS CATTLE GROWN IN AN INTENSIVE BEEF SYSTEM. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 75-78.

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (PUFA) CONTENTS OF MEAT AND EGG OF RAINBOW TROUT FISH (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Osman Kadir TOPUZ, Pınar YERLİKAYA, H. Aydan YATMAZ, Adem KAYA, Ali Can ALP

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n3/n6 is important factor for a healthy life. Fish and seafood are good source of PUFA. This research aimed to determine the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout meat and egg, compare the PUFA contents of these supplies and reveal their relation with health. Rainbow trout meat and egg contains high amount of PUFA, followed by MUFA and SFA. PUFA/SFA ration in trout meat is 1.64, meanwhile this ratio is 2.23 in trout egg. EPA+DHA content of the eggs are (23.23) higher than fish flesh (14.01). Rainbow trout egg meets the recommended values of PUFA/SFA, n3/n6 and EPA+DHA contents better than rainbow trout meat. Both fatty acids supplies have atherogenicity and thrombogenicity index values close to the recommended levels. Rainbow trout meat and its egg are good sources of long-chain PUFA.

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TOPUZ O.K., YERLİKAYA P., YATMAZ H.A., KAYA A., ALP A.C. 2017, POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (PUFA) CONTENTS OF MEAT AND EGG OF RAINBOW TROUT FISH (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 312-315.

PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRECISION DAIRY FARMING CONCEPT IN ROMANIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Alexandru KELEMEN, Gheorghe Emil MĂRGINEAN, Livia VIDU

This paper aims to present in a systematic way the practical and theoretical aspects of the Precision Dairy Farming Concept. This relatively new concept has emerged around the 2000s and for 10 years it referred to the feeding technology of dairy cows (Precision Feeding). Then, in 2010, a new trend appeared, that was to extend the concept of precision feeding to all the dairy farming technologies, and this includes optimizing the production processes by treating individually the cows, with help from automatic sensors. The data presented in this article were collected using the internet and the processing was done in order to create a theoretical basis to facilitate understanding of this concept in the first place, by the dairy specialists, and then by other professionals involved in dairy farming.

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KELEMEN A., MĂRGINEAN Gh. E., VIDU L. 2016, PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRECISION DAIRY FARMING CONCEPT IN ROMANIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 210-217.

PREDICTION OF BODYWEIGHT OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN-SWISS MALE CATTLE BY USING DIGITAL IMAGES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Yalçın BOZKURT, Nazire MIKAIL, Ümit Deniz ULUŞAR, Hakan AKTAŞ,Cihan DOGAN

This research aimed to develop prediction models for accurate estimation of performance and body measurements of beef cattle grown in feedlot beef system by using Digital Image Analysis (DIA). For this purpose, 40 animals were used in total and composed of 20 animals of the Brown Swiss breed and 20 animals of the Holstein breed with the age of about 4-5 months at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were fed the same dietary rations throughout the experimental period of 12 months. When the animals reached 500-550 kg bodyweights (BW), they were slaughtered. The digital images of each live animal were taken and the same parameters (digital wither height (DJWH), digital body length (DJBL), digital body depth (DJBD), digital hip width (DJHW), digital hip height (DJHH) and digital pin bone length (DJPL) were also determined from the images, using the data with 1069 observations for each traits. Then, prediction models were developed by DIA. The linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed to predict BW for both breeds and since there was no statistically significant differences (P˃0.05) in body measurements between breeds. The data of these breeds were combined and found that DJBL and DJWH would be the best possible traits in predicting BW (R2 =93.9% and 90.7% respectively) among the other measurements. The linear terms of all body measurements by DIA were considered for analysis and they were significant and R2 values for other body measurements DJHW, DJBD, DJHH and DJPL were approximately 78.4, 81.4, 87.7 and 67.7% respectively. It can be concluded that in management situations where BW cannot be measured it can be predicted accurately by measuring DJBL and DJWH alone or both DJBD and even DJHH and different models may be needed to predict BW in different feeding and environmental conditions and breeds.

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BOZKURT Y., MIKAIL N.,ULUŞAR U.D., AKTAŞ H., DOGAN C. 2017, PREDICTION OF BODYWEIGHT OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN-SWISS MALE CATTLE BY USING DIGITAL IMAGES. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 196-201.

PREDICTION OF CARCASS WEIGHT OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN SWISS CATTLE GROWN IN A 12-MONTHS INTENSIVE BEEF PRODUCTION SYSTEM BY USING REAL-TIME CARCASS MEASUREMENTS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Yalçın BOZKURT, Stepan VARBAN, Nazire MIKAIL, Cihan DOGAN

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the use of some morphometric carcass measurements to predict carcass weight of Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle grown in a 12-months intensive beef production system. Associations between carcass weights (CW) and some carcass measurements such as carcass heart girth (CHG), carcass length (CL) and carcass depth (CD) were examined for prediction ability, using the data with 134 observations for each traits. The linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed to predict CW for both breeds and since there were no statistically significant (P >0.05) differences in carcass measurements between breeds. The data of these breeds were combined and found that CL and CHG would be the best possible traits in predicting CW (R2 =57.9 and 50.7% respectively) among the other measurements. The highest R2 values were obtained from both the equation contained all carcass traits (R2 =65.5%) and the equation that included only CHG and CL (R2 =65.4%). All type of regressions showed that addition of quadratic and cubic terms contributed little benefit in predicting CW. Therefore, all linear terms of all carcass measurements were considered for analysis and they were significant (P ˂0.05) and the R2 value for other carcass measurement CD was approximately 20.8%. It can be concluded that in management situations where CW cannot be measured it can be predicted accurately by measuring CL and CHG alone and different models may be needed to predict CW in different feeding and environmental conditions and for other breeds.

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BOZKURT Y., VARBAN S., MIKAIL N., DOGAN C. 2017, PREDICTION OF CARCASS WEIGHT OF HOLSTEIN AND BROWN SWISS CATTLE GROWN IN A 12-MONTHS INTENSIVE BEEF PRODUCTION SYSTEM BY USING REAL-TIME CARCASS MEASUREMENTS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 191-195.

PRELIMINARY DATA ON EDUCATION LEVEL OF DAIRY FARMERS PERFORMANCES IN KOSOVO

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Medin ZEQIRI, Ylli BIÇOKU , Ergent PIRE

The comparison of education level and its effect on the performance of the dairy farms in two regions of Kosovo was the objective of this exploratory study, as it is not done up to now from any institution, in the country. The data are collected from 150 respondents randomly selected from farmers’ municipality database, in two regions of Kosovo (Gjilan and Ferizaj). The data were collected through face to face interviews and personal visits based on a structured questionnaire, during the period of May-July 2014. The results show significant differences between farmers (higher level of education compare with primary education) in regard with food safety standards, animal diseases, milk yield, animal identification, farm register, and feeding of the animals according to the production level. 64.4% of the farmers of secondary+ education group knew who is the institution in charge with food safety, 72.4% knew about the institution in charge of issuing the animal health certificate, 40.2% new the symptoms of Brucellosis, 43.7% knew the symptoms of TBC compare with 27%, 33.3%, 12.7% and 14.3%, respectively for the primary education group. This research may help agriculture advisory service decision makers improving teaching and training programs for dairy farmers. Better trained farmers can improve animals feeding, cows’ milk yield, diseases control of animals, and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonosis. In addition, public and donors support schemes for farmers should be strongly linked to food safety standard implementation.

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ZEQIRI M., BIÇOKU Y., PIRE E. 2016, PRELIMINARY DATA ON EDUCATION LEVEL OF DAIRY FARMERS PERFORMANCES IN KOSOVO. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 268-274.

PRELIMINARY DATA ON GROSS MARGIN COMPARISON OF DAIRY FARMS IN TWO REGIONS OF ALBANIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Grigor GJEÇI, Ylli BIÇOKU

The purpose of the study was to analyze and compare the economic efficiency of dairy farms in two regions of Albania. This was a descriptive and quantitative survey and the target population was the dairy farmers collaborating with Agriculture Regional Directories of Elbasan and Shkoder. The farmers and expert panel was used to calculate the gross margin. The annual farm incomeand the cost of milk production were studied. The milk cost ranged from 0,271to 0,30 Euro/kg, while milk price ranged from 0,310 to 0,356 Euro/kg, while the meat price ranged from 2,2 Euro/Kg to 2,5 Euro/Kg. The farms in Shkodra have a negative result only from the milk production, but the Gross Margin is improved from the meat selling. In Elbasan region the results are better; and incomes from milk are higher than incomes from meat while in Shkoder is vice-versa. The market price of one kilogram of meat is equal to 6.75 kg of milk. In variable cost, feed took the highest share by 81.2 percent. Feeding keeps the highest share within variable cost: 78.1% for Elbasan region and 75.6 % for Shkodra region. The Gross Margin per Cow (GMpC), for all the farms monitored, have positive values. The GMpCmilk+meatranged from 145.1 to 480.2 Euro/Cow in Shkoder and from 380.9 to 1480.8 Euro/Cow in Elabasan, while the GMpC milk in Elbasan had positive value (160.1 to 886.8 Euro/cow) in Shkodrathree farms hada negative value (-1.3 to 7.1 Euro/Cow) and the rest had positive value but lower than of Elbasan (47.8 to 136.8 Euro/Cow). This is one of the reasons, emphasized by MARDWA, that the analysis of the competitiveness of agriculture of Albania shows that currently only a small share of farms can compete in the regional market, EU and international level.

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GJEÇI G., BIÇOKU Y. 2017, PRELIMINARY DATA ON GROSS MARGIN COMPARISON OF DAIRY FARMS IN TWO REGIONS OF ALBANIA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 235-239.


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