ECONOMICAL PROSPECTS ON MEDIUM TERM IN THE CONTEXT OF MILK QUOTA ABOLITION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Vasile DREVE, Ion CĂLIN, Bogdan BAZGĂ

The dairy market has a major contribution to the agricultural turnover in the EU as a whole as well as in most of the Member States (MS) of the EU. The milk quota system was introduced in 1984, in order to limit public spending on the sector, to control milk production, and to stabilize milk prices and the agricultural income of milk producers. The abolition of milk quotas was aiming to improve the competitiveness of European dairies, making production more sensible to market variations. The removal of milk quotas at the same time intensifies the economic outlook of certain areas/categories of dairy production with comparative disadvantages. Medium and long term prospects are favorable for the dairy sector in line with population growth and appetite for Western-style diet in emerging economies. This does not prevent, however, short-term market fluctuations. Finally, the current difficulties faced by the milk producers milk in certain areas worst affected by feed price increases cannot hide the overall positive image of the sector.

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DREVE V., CĂLIN I., BAZGĂ B. 2016, ECONOMICAL PROSPECTS ON MEDIUM TERM IN THE CONTEXT OF MILK QUOTA ABOLITION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 282-287.

EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND AGE OF LAYING HENS ON THE QUALITY OF EGGS AND EGG SHELLS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Veselin PETRIČEVIĆ, Zdenka ŠKRBIĆ, Miloš LUKIC, Maja PETRIČEVIĆ, Vladimir DOSKOVIĆ, Simeon RAKONJAC, Miloš MARINKOVIĆ

The paper presents the results of testing of the egg and egg shell quality of two light line hen hybrids (Tetra SL and Bowans Brown). There were total of 4 tests. At the end of 35, 45, 55 and 65 weeks of age, the external and internal egg quality properties were tested as well as the quality of egg shell. Testing was conducted on a sample of 30 eggs for each hybrid. The weight and egg shape index were determined for each egg, as properties of the external quality, also internal quality properties such as albumen height and value of Haugh units (HU), and of the egg shell qualities - measured the egg shell deformation, the shell breaking force, the weight of raw shell and egg shell thickness were determined. The weight of the eggs did not differ significantly under the influence of said factors. Significantly higher mean values of the egg shape index at the age of 35 weeks were determined in comparison to 65 weeks of age. Under the influence of genotype, significantly higher (p<0.05) values of the albumen height in genotype Tetra SL were recorded. Albumen height in the 35th week of age was significantly higher (p<0.01) compared to other ages. Tetra SL layers showed significantly higher (p<0.05) HU values. With the increase of the age of hens the value of this parameter decreased, so, in the 35th week of age, statistically significantly higher HU value (p<0.01) was determined, compared to other ages. Deformation of the egg shell, breaking force and egg shell weight did not differ significantly influenced by genotype and age of laying hens. Significantly higher egg shell thickness values (p<0.05) were recorded for genotype Bowans Brown. With the increase of age of laying hens, there were no significant changes in egg shell thickness. Overall, it is concluded that both examined hybrids in terms of egg and egg shell quality traits have given satisfactory results. For most of the egg quality traits, better results were observed for Tetra SL hen genotype, while the most egg shell quality traits were in favour of hens of Bowans Brown genotype.

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PETRIČEVIĆ V., ŠKRBIĆ Z., LUKIC M., PETRIČEVIĆ M., DOSKOVIĆ V., RAKONJAC S., MARINKOVIĆ M. 2017, EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND AGE OF LAYING HENS ON THE QUALITY OF EGGS AND EGG SHELLS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 166-170.

EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE ON PLACENTAL CHARACTERISTIC AND KID BIRTH WEIGHT

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Ugur SEN, Hasan ONDER

Optimum placental development influence fetal growth and may hence postnatal mortality of offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dam age on placental characteristics and kid birth weight in Saanen goats. The experiment were conducted on 10 youth goat singleton bearing Saanen does (ranging from 10 to 12 mounts of age) and 10 mature singleton bearing Saanen does (ranging from 3 to 4 years of age). Birth weight, kid’s sex and placental measurements were recorded within 12 h after parturition. Adolescent doe had significantly lower (P<0.05)kid birth weight and placental weight than those of mature doe. Also the total number of placental cotyledons dissected from the chorioallantois in mature does were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of adolescent doe. There were positive correlation between kid birth weight and placental weight (0.795; P<0.01), kid birth weight and total cotyledons number (0.578; P<0.01) and placental weight and total cotyledons number (0.594; P<0.01).The results suggest that adolescent dams in the first parity may alter placental characteristics and fetal development resulting in a reduced kid birth weight from singleton gestations.

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SEN U., ONDER H. 2016, EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE ON PLACENTAL CHARACTERISTIC AND KID BIRTH WEIGHT. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 150-156.

EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED STARTER CULTURE ON TOFU DREG SILAGE QUALITY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Denny RUSMANA, Abun, Rachmat WIRADIMADJA, Handi BURHANUDDIN

Research used experimental method with split-plot design. Supplemented starterculture (without starter, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum) were whole plot and time of observed (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks) were subplot. Every time of observed for each treatment was replicated four times.The experiment showed that bacteria population among treatments for every time observed wasn’t significant (P>0.05). Lactic acid bacteria population from first making silage until fourth weeks for all treatments showed increased (P0.05). The first week observed N-Ammonia of silage wasn’t significant (P>0.05) among treatments. Significance N-ammonia of silage among treatments was began at second week. N-Ammonia Silage that supplemented Lactobacillus plantarum was lowest (P<0.05) significant than others.

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RUSMANA D., Abun, WIRADIMADJA R., BURHANUDDIN H. 2017, EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED STARTER CULTURE ON TOFU DREG SILAGE QUALITY. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 103-108.

EFFECT OF TRANSGLUTAMINASE AND NEUTRASE ON THE PROPERTIES OF PROTEIN ENRICHED RICE FLOUR

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Livia PĂTRAŞCU, Iuliana APRODU, Ina VASILEAN, Iuliana BANU

One way to improve the functionality of the proteins within different food matrices consists on applying different enzyme treatments. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking and Neutrase catalyzed hydrolysis on the rheological properties of egg, gluten and soy protein derivatives, and on the thermomechanical performance of the proteins - whole rice flour mixtures. Tests performed on 15% protein suspensions indicated that the rheological behaviour varied significantly with the substrate and type of enzyme treatment. The controlled enzyme treatment improved both the consistency and strength of the egg and soy proteins based suspensions. Moreover, the values of G'', G' and flow threshold values increased significantly after the enzymes treatment. On the other hand, lower viscosity and stability were observed when investigating the effect of the enzymes on the rheological behavior of gluten suspension. Further tests were meant to investigate the effect of transglutaminase and Neutrase addition on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the protein containing doughs based on whole rice flour. Addition of both enzymes to the flour mixtures resulted in significant changes in the Mixolab curves describing in particular the behaviour of the proteins at increasing temperature, but also starch gelatinization and retrogradation.

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PĂTRAŞCU L., APRODU I., VASILEAN I., BANU I. 2017, EFFECT OF TRANSGLUTAMINASE AND NEUTRASE ON THE PROPERTIES OF PROTEIN ENRICHED RICE FLOUR. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 291-299.

EFFECT OF USING A WINERY BY-PRODUCT WITH ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN LATER DIETS ENRICHED IN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS, ON EGG QUALITY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Vasile BUNDUC, Margareta OLTEANU, Rodica Diana CRISTE, Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE, Mariana ROPOTA, Monica MITOI

Due to their multiple positive, acknowledged effects of the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, present day consumers are increasing interested in ways of incorporating these fatty acids in their daily diet. The production of eggs enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids via the feeds given to layers is one way, but solutions have to found to preserve for a longer time the organoleptic properties of these enriched eggs. It appeared thus necessary to use antioxidants, natural mainly, in layer diets. Due to their high content of polyphenols, the natural antioxidants block oxidation by their reaction with the free radicals. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of a winery by-product, grape seeds meal, displaying antioxidant properties, given to layers, on egg quality. The experiment was conducted at a commercial poultry farm owned by Avicola Lumina SA, for 4 weeks, on a total of 64.000 layers aged 27 weeks, Tetra SL LL hybrid. The layers were assigned to two groups, control (C) and experimental (E), of 32.000 layers each. The diets were based on corn, soybean meal and sunflower meal, and had the same protein and energy content. The diet of the experimental group differed by the inclusion of flax meal and camelina meal, as ingredients rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and of 1% grape seed meal, as natural antioxidant. Egg samples were collected in the end of the experiment and assayed for their quality. The higher concentration of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids in the diet for group E (12.26 ± 0.15 g/100 g fat) compared to group C (7.28 ± 0.89 g/100 g fat) was also found in the yolk of the sampled eggs, which increased from 3.33 ± 0.20 g/100 g fat in group C, to 5.76 ± 0.30 g/100 g fat in group E. The higher antioxidant capacity, 7.157 ± 0.662 mM Trolox equivalent / g of the diet for group E, compared to 6.507 ± 0.401 mM Trolox equivalent / g of the diet for group C, also increased the antioxidant capacity of the eggs. Thus, the eggs harvested from group E had an antioxidant capacity of 126.353 ± 4.523 mM Trolox equivalent / g, compared to 115.300 ± 7.269 mM Trolox equivalent / g in the eggs collected from group C. These results that the winey by-product, grape seed meal, can be used as antioxidant feed additive in layer diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids, thus improving the properties of the eggs.

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BUNDUC V., OLTEANU M., CRISTE R.D., PANAITE T.D., ROPOTA M., MITOI M. 2016, EFFECT OF USING A WINERY BY-PRODUCT WITH ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN LATER DIETS ENRICHED IN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS, ON EGG QUALITY. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 79-84.

EFFECTS OF CALVING AGE AND SEASON ON SOME MILK YIELD TRAITS IN ANATOLIAN BUFFALOES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Ertuğrul KUL, Aziz ŞAHİN, Hayrettin ÇAYIROĞLU, Gökhan FİLİK, Emre UĞURLUTEPE, Sezer ÖZ

The objective of the study was to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting the some milk yield traits of Anatolian buffalo raised at public hand in Amasya province, Turkey. A total of 239 buffalo calved in 2014 year were constituted the research material. Calving age and calving season were assessed as affecting non-genetic factors on daily milk yield (DMY), lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL). The overall means of DMY, LMY and LL were 2.76±0.051 kg, 470.91±9.784 kg and 171.8±1.66 day, respectively. Calving age had a significant (P<0.05) effect on DMY and LMY, but its effect on LL was not significant. The effects of calving season on DMY, LMY and LL were not significant. DMY and LMY increase progressively until 8th calving age, and the highest milk yield found in the 8thage, then decline gradually in the 9th and 10th ages. The current results show that good selection programme and improvement management including for calving age could improve milk yield traits.

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KUL E., ŞAHİN A., ÇAYIROĞLU H., FİLİK G., UĞURLUTEPE E., ÖZ S. 2016, EFFECTS OF CALVING AGE AND SEASON ON SOME MILK YIELD TRAITS IN ANATOLIAN BUFFALOES. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 33-37.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY ADDITION OF CHLOROGENIC SUBSTANCES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, INTESTINAL MICROFLORA POPULATION AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY IN BROILERS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Muzaffer DENLI, Serhat AKYILDIZ, Simten YESILMEN ALP, Paul W. CARDOZO

The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary effects of chlorogenic substances (Igusafe) on growth performance, intestinal microflora population and serum biochemistry in broilers. A total of 144 Ross 308 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups consisting of 8 replications of 6 chicks per pen for 42 days. There treatments were used: chicks were fed by basal diet as control group, basal diet plus 80 mg Igusafe/kg diet, and basal diet and 160 mg Igusafe/kg diet. Results showed that the addition of 80 mg Igusafe to the diet resulted in significantly higher body weight gains and lower aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein (TP) concentrations compared with control group (P<0.05). Intestinal tract weight was also significantly higher in the group fed 160 mg Igusafe/kg diet (P<0.05). Supplementing both levels of Igusafe significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (P<0.05). There were no treatments effects on carcass yield, liver weight and Lactic acid bacteria population (P>0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that supplementation of Igusafe may be useful as enhancer of growth performance by reducing Escherichia coli count with a positive trend to decrease the broilers mortality.

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DENLI M., AKYILDIZ S., YESILMEN ALP S., CARDOZO P.W. 2016, EFFECTS OF DIETARY ADDITION OF CHLOROGENIC SUBSTANCES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, INTESTINAL MICROFLORA POPULATION AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY IN BROILERS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 91-94.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY SYMBIOTICS AND ORGANIC ZINC ON TRACE MINERALS COMPOSITION OF PORK

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Arabela Elena UNTEA, Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE, Mihaela SARACILA, Cristina SOICA

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of symbiotics and organic zinc on pork quality (five anatomical parts and three types of organs) of growing pigs. The 28 days study was conducted on 8 castrated Topigs growing pigs, males, with an initial bodyweight of 18.25 ± 0.43 kg. The pigs were assigned to 2 groups (C, E), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on conventional diets with 18.54% CP and 3129.6 kcal/kg ME. The diets of E group contained organic Zn (E.C.O. Trace® Trace minerals, Biochem Zusatzstoffe Handels- und ProduktionsgesellschaftmbH Küstermeyerstr, Germany) and it was supplemented with 10 g/kg symbiotics (BiominR IMBO Pro/prebiotic, BIOMIN, GmbH Austria). At the end of experiment, all pigs were slaughtered and meat (tenderloin; loin; ham; shoulder; belly) and organ (liver, kidney and spleen) samples were collected. The mineral quality of the collected samples was evaluated. For the samples of loin, tenderloin and belly, the iron concentrations were significantly (P≤0.5) increased for E group, compared to C group (loin: 7.3 ± 0.4 ppm for C; 10.05 ± 0.8 ppm for E; tenderloin: 14.51 ± 2.3 ppm for C; 18.82 ± 0.9 ppm for E and belly: 14.31 ± 1.14 ppm for C; 19.89 ± 1.5 ppm for E). Similar results were obtained for iron concentrations in organs, but, the differences recorded were only numeric. No significant differences were noticed between groups for Zn, Cu and Mn concentrations in the collected samples. The conclusion of the study was that symbiotics and organic zinc had positive effects on mineral metabolism and these results confirm the synergistic interrelation of Zn and Fe.

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UNTEA A.E., PANAITE T.D., SARACILA M., SOICA C. 2017, EFFECTS OF DIETARY SYMBIOTICS AND ORGANIC ZINC ON TRACE MINERALS COMPOSITION OF PORK. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 118-122.

EFFECTS OF HERBAL MIXTURE AND DON OR T-2 TOXIN EXPOSURE ON SOME GLUTATHIONE REDOX AND LIPID PEROXIDATION PARAMETER OF BLOOD AND LIVER IN BROILER CHICKENS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Mangesh NAKADE, Krisztián BALOGH, Laura FOGARASI, Judit SZABÓ-FODOR, Erika ZÁNDOKI, Miklós MÉZES, Márta ERDÉLYI

The purpose of present study was to investigate the short-term effect of DON and T-2 toxin exposure on some blood and liver lipid peroxide and glutathione redox parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 120 three-week old Cobb 540 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into five experimental groups of 24 chickens in each. The short-term trial lasted for 48 hours, after 12 hours of feed deprivation. The experimentally mycotoxin-contaminated diets contained (1 kg) 3.74 mg T-2 or 16.12 mg DON, respectively. Herbal mixture (Herbamix Basic Premix™, Herbamix Trade Ltd., Budapest) was added to the complete feed at the dose of 600 mg/kg. Six birds of each group were slaughtered at 12th, 24th, 36th and 48th hours of the experiment. Parameters of the lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and the glutathione redox system (reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity) were measured in blood plasma and liver homogenate. Malondialdehyde content did not change in blood plasma but it was significantly lower in liver homogenate in both mycotoxin loaded groups fed with herbal mixture supplemented feed at 24 hour as compared to the control. Reduced glutathione content did not change significantly in blood plasma, but in liver homogenate, at 24 hour sampling, T-2 toxin alone or in combination with herbal mixture showed significantly higher values as compared to the control. In conclusion, the investigated trichothecene mycotoxins at the dose applied, activated the glutathione redox system in liver of broiler chicken, while addition of herbal mixture has moderate effect against the mild oxidative stress as caused by DON or T-2 toxin.

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NAKADE M., BALOGH K., FOGARASI L., SZABÓ-FODOR J., ZÁNDOKI E., MÉZES M., ERDÉLYI M. 2017, EFFECTS OF HERBAL MIXTURE AND DON OR T-2 TOXIN EXPOSURE ON SOME GLUTATHIONE REDOX AND LIPID PEROXIDATION PARAMETER OF BLOOD AND LIVER IN BROILER CHICKENS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 97-102.


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