FATS IN PRODUCTS FEED SUPPLEMENTS AND EFFECT ON RETENTION OF PROTEIN IN NILEM FISH (Osteochilus hasseltii)

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Kiki HAETAMI, ABUN, Deni RUSMANA,Yeni MULYANI

Nilem fish (Osteochilus hasseltii) has a great potential as product of baby fish (three months old), and fish eggs (caviar) and that is now introduced in the floating cages started nursery phase. Optimization of cultivation through input-protein energy efficient as well as enrichment efforts fatty acids in the diet is very urgent. This study aims to get the kind of fat supplement of alternative materials which added to the feed to improve growth and protein retention in nilem fish reared in Cirata. The research was conducted in two stages: (1) Phase 1, scale up alternative sources of fats from hazelnut and meal worm (Tenebrio molitor); added in the feed formulation; (2) Phase 2, growth, feed conversion, and retention of protein on fish meat. The experimental design in biological assay using a completely randomized design (6x3); with standard ration treatment (Rs), then Rs with the addition of animal fat supplements (meal worm) and vegetable oils (hazelnut) in the form of flour and oil extraction, as well as a commercial feed controls. The results showed that: 1) Yield of pure oil of hazelnut and meal worm results flouring solvent extraction followed respectively by 27.3% and 12.15% of the fresh weight. 2) Feeding for four weeks showed that growth rate between 3.72 g - 5.82 g, with meal worm feed supplements 2% was highest absolute growth rate, and no significant with high protein on control, and so was hazelnut 2%. 3) Retention of protein obtained in supplement worm oil and hazelnut oil 1%, respectively 33.42 and 33.46%.

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HAETAMI K., ABUN, RUSMANA D.,MULYANI Y. 2016, FATS IN PRODUCTS FEED SUPPLEMENTS AND EFFECT ON RETENTION OF PROTEIN IN NILEM FISH (Osteochilus hasseltii). Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 320-325.

FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMBS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT SHARES OF NON-DEGRADABLE PROTEIN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by D. Ružić-Muslić, M. P. Petrović, M. M. Petrović, Z. Bijelić, V. Caro Petrović, N. Maksimović

The effects of the level of non-degradable protein in diet on fattening performance and carcass characteristics of intensively fattened lambs are presented in the paper.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal level of nondegradable protein in the diet of weaned lambs fattened intensively.The experiment was conducted on 60 lambs of MIS population weaned at 60 days of age, divided into three groups.The effect of the use of three concentrated mixtures which differed in terms of the share of non-degradable protein at the rumen level was studied: 43% (I), 51% (II) and 58% (III).The average daily gain of lambs included in the treatments I : II : III was 0.169 : 0.205 : 0.227 kg, respectively. Conversion of dry matter (kg/kggain) on analogue treatments was 4.54 : 3.71 : 3.30; energy (MJ NEM/kg): 33.77 : 29.37 : 26.25; total protein (g/kg): 732 : 596 : 549. Values of yield of warm carcass with offal, observed per treatments I : II : III were as follows: 58.70 : 58.02 : 57.42%. Meat yield of category I (thigh, loin) on analogue treatments amounted to 37.27 : 37.35 : 37.51%, category II (back, shoulder, neck) 33.9 : 32.67 : 32.83% and category III (chest with a forearm and shanks): 27.78 : 29.59 : 29.10%. The ratio of muscle and bone tissue in the treatments with 48 : 51 : 58% non-degradable protein was 2.5:1; 2.9:1; and 2.8:1.This research has shown that the best fattening performance was achieved by lambs on treatment with 58% RUP while meat yield and morphological composition of the carcass side were not under significant influence of the studied treatment.

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D. RUZIC-MUSLIC D., PETROVIC M.P., PETROVIC M.M., BIJELIC Z., CARO PETROVIC V., MAKSIMOVIC N. 2016, FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMBS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT SHARES OF NON-DEGRADABLE PROTEIN. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 102-107.

FEED LOSS IN CUP DRINKERS IN GEESE PRODUCTION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Mehmet Akif BOZ, Musa SARICA, Umut Sami YAMAK

The feed losses in drinkers and behavior of geese in two different systems (intensive and free-range) were investigated in this study. Day old age 216 Turkish geese were randomly allocated among 16 pens interspersed within windowed houses, each holding 12-14 goslings. All goslings were reared indoors until the end of 6 weeks of age. After 6 weeks of age, birds in the 'free-range’ outdoor system were given 13-hour access. The amount of feed merged into drinkers determined weekly. The effect of production system on feed loss was significant between weeks of 7-18, and the amount of feed loss in free-range system was found higher than indoor (P<0.05). Highest feed lost was determined at 16 weeks of age. Daily mean feed loss in drinkers per goose was calculated between 9.55 and 15.93 g. It has been determined that significant amount of feed loss related to drinkers in geese production.

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BOZ M.A., SARICA M., YAMAK U.S. 2016, FEED LOSS IN CUP DRINKERS IN GEESE PRODUCTION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 170-172.

FEED OIL SUPPLEMENT FROM ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS ON FEED EFFICIENCY AND PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO IN RED TILAPIA FISH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) SEED PHASE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Kiki HAETAMI, Junianto JUNIANTO, Iskandar ISKANDAR, Abun ABUN

Optimization of cultivation through input protein-energy efficient in the diet is very urgent. Fish need fat as an energy source and to maintain the shape and function of membrane tissue. This study aims to explore source fat from alternative materials of animal fat (caterpillar flour or larvae of Tenebrio molitor) and seed fat (hazelnut) in the form of feed oil supplement (FOS) its impact on feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio in red tilapia fish seed phase. Methods of extraction descriptively, followed by a biological test experimentally, completely randomized design (7x3) use of feed oil supplement from caterpillar flour and hazenut (each with a dossage 1%, 2% and 2% a mixture of both) were added to the basal feed (low protein), and treatment standard feed (high protein). The extraction of hazelnut (31.72% crude protein, fat 35.32%) and the caterpillar flour (crude protein 55.11%; 15.51% fat), obtained the total yield of 30-35% material and extract oil supplements each 9.9 % and 4.05% initial weight. Biological test showed that the highest feed efficiency in the use of 2% a mixture of both caterpilar and hazelnut oil, but not significatly different with the use of standard feed and 2% hazelnut oil and caterpillar oil. Feed efficiency and Protein efficiency ratio of 2% feed oil supplement was higher compared to 1% feed oil supplement award and the basal feed. The addition of feed oil supplement will be increasing content of Energy-Protein Balance in the feed (ranging from 6.8 to 8.9 kcal.g-1 protein). There means the protein sparring effect (effect of partial substitution of protein as an energy sources by fat) so as to conserve resources N and in turn be able to eliminate the discharge of nitrogen in the water

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HAETAMI K., JUNIANTO J., ISKANDAR I., ABUN A. 2017, FEED OIL SUPPLEMENT FROM ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS ON FEED EFFICIENCY AND PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO IN RED TILAPIA FISH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) SEED PHASE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 348-352.

FEEDING QUALITY OF THE MEAT FROM BROILERS FED WITH DIETARY FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS (FLAXSEED, RAPESEEDS AND BUCKTHORN MEAL, GRAPE POMACE)

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Petru Alexandru VLAICU, Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE, Dumitru DRAGOTOIU, Mariana ROPOTA, Eugen BOBE, Margareta OLTEANU, Rodica Diana CRISTE

A feeding trial was conducted on 75, ROSS308 (0-42days) broilers, to evaluate the quality of the meat from broilers which received food industry by-products in their diets: rapeseeds meal and grape pomace, or flaxseeds meal and buckthorn meal. The broiler chicks were assigned to 3 groups (C, E1 and E2), and were housed in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions: average air temperature 27.07±2.75oC, humidity 64.80±9.57%. For 10 days, during the starter phase, all chicks received a conventional compound feed. In the other two stages (growing, finishing), compared to the conventional diet given to the C group, the diet formulations of the experimental groups included different proportions, depending on the phase of development, rapeseeds meal and grape pomace (E1), or flaxseeds and buckthorn meals (E2). The highest polyphenols concentration was determined in the finishing diet formulation for group E1 (with 8% rapeseeds meal and 4% grape pomace). The dietary concentration of ɷ 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ɷ 3 PUFA) in the diet formulations for group E2 increased with the level of dietary flaxseeds meal (2.5% during the grower phase and 8% in the finishing phase). Six broilers from each group were slaughtered in the end of the trial and meat (breast and thigh) and liver samples were collected and assayed for dry matter, protein, fat, ash, fatty acids and cholesterol. The highest concentration of ɷ 3 PUFA, which are essential for human health, were determined in the breast and thigh of E2 broilers (flaxseeds meal and buckthorn meal). The cholesterol level in the breast meat and thigh samples was not significantly different between groups; however, it was lowerin the experimental groups than in the control group. The fat level in the liver samples collected from C group broilers was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than in the experimental groups.

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VLAICU P.A., PANAITE T.D., DRAGOTOIU D., ROPOTA M., BOBE E., OLTEANU M., CRISTE R.D. 2017, FEEDING QUALITY OF THE MEAT FROM BROILERS FED WITH DIETARY FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS (FLAXSEED, RAPESEEDS AND BUCKTHORN MEAL, GRAPE POMACE) . Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 123-130.

GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Aleksandra KONSTANDOGLO, Valentin FOKSHA, Alexander KENDIGELYAN, Igor AKBASH, Maria AKBASH

There are presented the results of the evaluation of animals of Holsteins of Dutch selection in herd SLL „DokSanCom” for the 2 study periods: Ist (2012, n = 202) and the IInd (2016, n = 144). During the analyzed periods of research in the population of the assessed animals is observed a high frequency of occurrence of antigens B2, G2, I2, O2, Y2, E'2, G″, which is typical for the Holstein breed and other breeds of black motley roots, and also to the Moldovan type of black - motley cattle. In the AEC-system is observed an increase in the frequency of occurrence of antigens R1 (0.0247-0.0833), E (0.5742-0.5903), X2 (0.5891-0.6806), L′ (0.0742-0.2083). During the analyzed period of studies were found 21 identical alleles of AEB-locus. The main relative densities in the structure of the allelophond of herd alleles occupy B2O1, B2O1Y2Dʹ, G2Y2Eʹ1Qʹ, I2, D′G′O′, Oʹ, Q′ and G″. Low homozygosity ratio (Cα – 5.0-5.2%) shows the high genetic diversity of the population of studied cattle. In the antigenic spectrum and in the allelophond of AEB locus at cattle of SLL „DokSanCom” predominate marker antigens and alleles characteristic to Holstein cattle, to other breeds of black motley roots, and also to Moldovan type of black motley cattle. Further selection and selection of animals in the herd SLL „DokSanCom” expedient to maintain in view of the genetic blood group systems.

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KONSTANDOGLO A., FOKSHA V., KENDIGELYAN A., AKBASH I., AKBASH M. 2017, GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 40-44.

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE ROMANIAN SHEEP BREEDS QUANTIFIED BY MEANS OF INFORMATIONAL ENERGY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Gheorghe HRINCĂ

The study makes an analysis of the genetic diversity (d) in the Romanian sheep breeds (Palas Merino, Tsigai, Tsurcana and Botosani Karakul) using a concept of informational statistics termed the informational energy (e) which measures very precisely the genetic heritage of the taxonomic entities than by common indicators of mathematical statistics (allelic frequency analysis, significance testing etc.). The informational-statistical quantification of genetic diversity used the allelic frequencies within three genetic system types in the calculus algorithm: five biochemical-genetic systems (haemoglobin, transferrin, albumin, amylase, blood potassium), six immunogenetic systems (blood group systems A, B, C, D, M, R-O) and seven genetic-molecular systems (¬-lactoglobulin, calpastatin, s1-casein, prion, SLS, Booroola, Inverdale). The accuracy of the new approach on the genetic diversity resides from a complex analysis of the allele number, their frequencies, inter allelic ratio and genetic polymorphism degree within each system. The paper describes the genetic diversity levels both within each system, as well as in associated systems, and highlights the genetic diversity differences among the Romanian sheep breeds in relation to the systemic parameters mentioned. Also, some comments are made about the heterozygosity degree of sheep breeds in corroboration with genetic diversity. Finally, the paper argues the importance of genetic diversity measured in terms of informational statistics for improvement and conservation programs in the field of farm animal breeding, but makes clarifications also about the danger that comes from increasing the diversity at some loci associated with genetic diseases.

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HRINCĂ G. 2017, GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE ROMANIAN SHEEP BREEDS QUANTIFIED BY MEANS OF INFORMATIONAL ENERGY. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 21-34.

GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF FEMALE AND MALE HOLSTEIN CALVES FED WITH MILK AND MILK REPLACERS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Tahir BAYRIL, Orhan YILMAZ, Bahattin CAK

The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5%) and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%), respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05) on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer, also growth performances of calves fed milk and milk replacer containing high-protein had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

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BAYRIL T., YILMAZ O., CAK B. 2016, GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF FEMALE AND MALE HOLSTEIN CALVES FED WITH MILK AND MILK REPLACERS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 18-22.

GROWTH TRAITS OF GUINEA FOWL IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Umut Sami YAMAK, Musa SARICA, Mehmet Akif BOZ, Ahmet UCAR

Two hundred day old guinea fowl keets were reared in free-range intensive system to determine the effect of production system on growth traits. All birds kept indoor until 7 weeks, and half of them had access to outdoor until 18 weeks of age. All birds were individually weighed with two weeks intervals. Feed consumption was determined and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 weeks of age (P<0.05) and intensively reared birds had higher live weights. The difference between the weights of free-range and intensive system was not significant between the ages of 14-18 weeks. Mean body weight of guinea fowls in free-range system was 1196.61 g, whereas 1203.8 g in intensive system. Male guinea fowls had significantly higher weights than females at all ages in both production systems (P<0.05). Male guinea fowls reached 1241.67 g at 18 weeks and females had a mean body weight of 1158.74 g at the same period. Birds reared in free-range system had significantly higher feed consumption at all ages. Production system had significant effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and intensively reared guinea fowls had better FCR.FCR of free-range guinea fowls was found as 6.43 and 5.80 in intensive system.

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YAMAK U.S., SARICA M., BOZ M.A.,UCAR A. 2016, GROWTH TRAITS OF GUINEA FOWL IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 65-70.

HARD TICK (ACARI: IXODIDAE) CO-INFESTATION OF ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN VOJVODINA HUNTING RESORTS (SERBIA)

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Ivana IVANOVIĆ, Aleksandra PETROVIĆ, Aleksandar JURIŠIĆ, Aleksandra POPOVIĆ, Miloš PETROVIĆ, Vojislava BURSIĆ, Nikola PUVAČA

Roe deer are important hosts for ticks, providing them constant and reliable source of food, as well as the mode for habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the species diversity of ixodid ticks parasitizing on the roe deer and the level of co-infestation. Eight tick species sampled from the 72 carcasses of roe deer were identified: I. ricinus, D. marginatus, D. reticulatus, H. punctata, H. concinna, H. sulcata, R. sanguineus and R. bursa. The most abundant were the females of I. ricinus and the highest prevalence was obtained for I. ricinus and D. marginatus. The single-species infestation was not detected. The co-infestation of all identified tick species was found on 15 carcasses and equally high percentage was obtained for co-infestation of six tick species. Roe deer as the habitat generalist and polyphagous herbivore are exposed to a greater tick species diversity present at the same habitats. The roe deer coinfestation with ixodid ticks in Vojvodina region could be explained by both sets of factors that promote multiparasitism: the spatial distribution of the hosts and the host life quality.

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IVANOVIĆ I., PETROVIĆ A., JURIŠIĆ A., POPOVIĆ A., PETROVIĆ M., BURSIĆ V., PUVAČA N. 2016, HARD TICK (ACARI: IXODIDAE) CO-INFESTATION OF ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN VOJVODINA HUNTING RESORTS (SERBIA). Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 326-329.


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