CRYOGENIC CHANGES OF IONIC COMPOSITION AND STABILITY OF THE SPERM BIOCOMPLEXES OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS AT ITS CONSERVATION

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Ion BALAN, Gheorghe BORONCIUC, Vladimir BUZAN, Nicolae ROŞCA, Iulia CAZACOV, Melania BUCARCIUC, Ion MEREUŢA, Nadejda ZAICENCO

In the article are presented the literal references devoted to theoretical investigations of phase changes in biological membranes at the cryopreservation process, also the development and new experimental methods application in studying different physico-chemical manifestations that are reflected by such type of devices. Lowering the temperature causes the phase of reorganization of biological membranes. Dehydration of cells in the process of phase transition is accompanied by the deformation of biological membranes. The result of phase transitions in biological membranes there is a migration, aggregation, translocation, and other types of movement protein components. Low temperatures lead to destabilization of membrane structures, causing activation of peroxidation and changes in lipid composition, and this affects the functional state of cells. Own protective functions of the gametes aimed at the stabilization of lipids and lipid processes in the low-temperatures zone can be sufficiently manifested in conditions of purposeful regulation of them from the outside.

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BALAN I., BORONCIUC G., BUZAN V., ROŞCA N, CAZACOV I., BUCARCIUC M., MEREUŢA I., ZAICENCO N. 2017, CRYOGENIC CHANGES OF IONIC COMPOSITION AND STABILITY OF THE SPERM BIOCOMPLEXES OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS AT ITS CONSERVATION. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 154-159.

DAIRY GOAT PRODUCTS OF EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY: KÜNEFE AND SÜNME CHEESES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Oya Berkay KARACA, Sezen OCAK

Goat products have historically been used for multitude of purposes; forming an integral component of the livestock industry, plays a vital role in the socio economic structure of the rural community. Turkey has the highest goat population in Europe with 8 million head however; the population has a decreasing trend due to poor performance of native breeds, lack of state support policies and migration from the rural to urban areas by 40% from 13.3 million down to 8 million between the years of 1985 and 2014. Dairy goat products and cheeses constitute of a long historical back ground in Turkey, as well as many toher Mediterranean countries. Künefe and Sünme cheeses are traditional dairy goat products that are produced in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey with local artisan cheese-making procedures. They are mostly made from goats’, sometimes cows’ milk or a mixture of both. With the high industrialisation like in many fields, artisanal cheese types are diminishing. While Künefe cheese is sold fresh as soft cheese for a special dessert (Künefe), Sünme cheese is usually consumed in the breakfast. The objectives of the present paper were to characterize the processing stages of Künefe and Sünme cheeses produced from goats’ milk and to describe their compositional characteristics. A better knowledge of their characteristics would support the improvement of the production technology and help to obtain a constant quality product capable of being successfully introduced into national and international markets. Apart from the present situation, production methods and steps affecting consumption of above mentioned cheese types are elaborated in this paper. Information gathered from this study may provide a better understanding of Künefe and Sünme cheese and therefore could be useful to disseminate artisanal cheese types in the industry.

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KARACA O.B., OCAK S. 2016, DAIRY GOAT PRODUCTS OF EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY: KÜNEFE AND SÜNME CHEESES. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 288-295.

DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL CONTENT AND DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME UNDER- UTILIZED FEEDS IN RUMINANTS FEEDING THROUGH TWO IN VITRO METHODS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Nertila MALUSHI, Lumturi PAPA, Margarida MAIA, Hugo OLIVEIRA

Chemical analyses, enzymatic and Tilley and Terry digestibility were used to describe the feeding values of thirteen feed samples. Two samples were from common used feeds in ruminant animals feeding: alfalfa hay of two successive cuts and nine other feeds representing under-utilized ones in ruminant feeding like as cereal straw, faba bean straw and pea straw collected at the end of vegetation. All samples were analyzed for their chemical content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) and enzymatic digestibility of dry matter. The under-utilized feed, pea straws and faba pods have similar chemical content for main Weende parameters. They have higher values for CP that cereal straws (31-34%) and lower value of CF (11.6%). The NDF and ADF content of pea straw and faba pod resulted lower that in cereal straw respectively 24% and 14%. The dry matter digestibility (DMD) determined with enzymatic and Tilley and Terry methods resulted to be higher in pea straw and faba pod in comparisons with that of cereal straw respectively 20% and 18%. The dry matter digestibility values determined with Tilley and Terry method for all feeds included in the study resulted higher than DMD determined with enzymatic method. The results of DMD determined by two “in vitro” methods were strongly correlated. According to R2 -value (0.99) the DMD determined by Tilley and Terry method could be predicted from enzymatic test as most convenient since it does not need animals.

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MALUSHI N., PAPA L., MAIA M., OLIVEIRA H. 2017, DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL CONTENT AND DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME UNDER- UTILIZED FEEDS IN RUMINANTS FEEDING THROUGH TWO IN VITRO METHODS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 91-96.

DETERMINATION OF GRASSLAND AREAS BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ISPARTA, TURKEY*

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX
Written by Cihan DOGAN, Yalçın BOZKURT

This study was carried to determine the size and quality and potential of pastures by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS),in the province of Isparta located on the West Mediterranean Region of Turkey. In this study, Merkez, Şarkikarağaç and Yalvaç districts were chosen as test areas which comprise of 80% of whole grassland area of Isparta Province. A digital map showing areas of pasture belonging to the district of Şarkikaraağaç was prepared and the grassland area was estimated. Sowing times for grass samples was identified as May\ July and September in 2011 to determine dry matter (DM) in the amount of biomass, botanical composition and ADF, NDF and crude protein (CP) values. The amounts of biomass on DM basis per hectare in the districts of Merkez, Şarkikaraağaç and Yalvac 3.11, 2.71 and 2.69 ton/ha, respectively. Botanical compositions for Merkezleguminosae 21%, Gramineae 37% and 42% others respectively; Şarkikaraağaç 36%, 40% and 25%; Yalvaç 36% and 33% was 31%. Average ADF and NDF contents were increased during the vegetation period; CP rates were decreased. Both DM yields and protein contents towards the end of vegetation period were reduced. Therefore, the most appropriate animal grazing period was determined as between the beginning of May and the early September, and also in relation to the botanical composition of grasses in grassland areas, Gramineae was found to be greater than other species. Therefore, cattle grazing would be a more appropriate grassland management system in the study area. When setting up an inventory that is required for animal pasture and the results of similar studies related to Isparta province, the realization of an effective pasture management and exploitation of RS and GIS technologies and techniques will help to make decisions about the use of these technologies in terms of both time and economic contributions.

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DOGAN C., BOZKURT Y. 2017, DETERMINATION OF GRASSLAND AREAS BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ISPARTA, TURKEY*. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LX, ISSN 2285-5750, 221-225.

DETERMINATION OF HEATING AND COOLING DEGREE DAYS FOR BROILER BREEDING IN THE TIGRIS BASIN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Atilgan ATILGAN, Ali YÜCEL, Hasan ÖZ, Burak SALTUK

Nowadays, despite complex and sophisticated methods for the energy analysis in buildings, the degree-day method, which is one of the most important energy forecasting techniques, is still important. During the research, heating and cooling degree-day values were calculated using dry-bulb thermometer temperature values of long years of five cities (Diyarbakir, Batman, Siirt, Sirnak and Mardin) located in the Tigris Basin. Six different base temperature values were used for each province located in the research area in order to calculate the heating and cooling degree-day values in broiler breeding. Within the proposed six base temperature values, the most heating degree-day values were in Sirnak, and the least were in Batman province. Cooling degree-day values were calculated in the same way. The most cooling need was in Mardin province, except the base temperature value proposed for the first week. The least cooling day values were in Sirnak province. Regression coefficients were obtained by correlating heating and cooling degree-day values and six proposed base temperature values. It was determined that the regression coefficients for all provinces between cumulative heating and cooling degree-day values (dependent variable) and average annual heating and cooling degree-day values and independent variable, in other words, proposed base temperature values, varied between 0.993-0.999, and there was a very strong relationship in a positive way. If the numbers of heating and cooling degreedays are low in a region, then it can be said that the region is suitable for agricultural production. In accordance with the data obtained in the study area, it was concluded that Batman was the most suitable province for broiler breeding in terms of both heating and cooling degree-days.

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ATILGAN A., YÜCEL A., ÖZ H., SALTUK B. 2016, DETERMINATION OF HEATING AND COOLING DEGREE DAYS FOR BROILER BREEDING IN THE TIGRIS BASIN. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 164-169.

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF KOKOREÇ SOLD IN ISPARTA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Birol KILIÇ

In this study, a total of 30 kokoreç samples (10 raw, 10 cooked and 10 cooked-seasoned) collected from 10 different restaurants in Isparta district of Turkey were investigated for microbiological quality. The raw, cooked and seasoned kokoreç samples were subjected to total aerobic bacteria count, total coliforms, yeast and mould. The results of this study revealed that raw kokoreç samples had 105-108cfu/g aerobic mesophilic viable bacteria, 104-105cfu/g total coliforms, 103-106cfu/g yeast and molds. On the other hand, cooked kokoreç samples had 102-105cfu/g aerobic mesophilic viable bacteria, <101cfu/g coliforms, <101cfu/g yeast and molds. Furthermore, cooked-seasoned kokoreç samples had 105-106 cfu/g aerobic mesophilic viable bacteria, 104-105cfu/g coliforms, 103-104cfu/g yeast and molds. This study results showed that even though cooking process decreased the microbial load significantly, the use of seasonings resulted in a significant increase in the microbial load of cooked kokoreç samples. This study indicated that kokoreç sold in Isparta market is not at the desired level as far as microbiological quality is concerned and the necessary measures should be taken for protection of consumer health and satisfaction of consumer expectations.

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KILIÇ B. 2016, DETERMINATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF KOKOREÇ SOLD IN ISPARTA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 296-298.

DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENOMIC AND PHENOTYPIC BREEDING VALUES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Samet Hasan ABACI, Hasan ÖNDER, Diane Moody SPURLOCK

The main aim of the animal breeding is to increase the yields of economic traits in future generations and increase the obtained production per animal. Genomic selection studies have become applicable as a result of rapid increase of both genetic and computer sciences. In this study, Bayes A, Bayes B, Bayes C, Bayes Cpi which are used in genomic selection and BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) methods which are used traditional selection will be compared. For this aim genomic breeding value and phenotypic breeding value has been estimated for lactation milk yield of Holstein cows breeding in a private company in USA. Holstein cows (400 individuals) were genotyped with 54k SNPs. The marker input file was coded as -10, 0, and 10 for marker genotypes AA, AB, and BB, respectively. A total of 50,000 iterations were used, with the first 5000 excluded as the burn-in. Bayes A, Bayes B, Bayes C and Bayes Cpi were performed using the software GenSel 4.55 and phenotypic breeding values for lactation milk yield in Holstein cows were estimated by restricted error maximum likelihood (REML), BLUP procedures using an MTDFREML (multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood) program employing an animal model. Correlations were examined between phenotypic and genomic breeding values with Spearman correlation. As a result, for estimating breeding values, while the highest correlation was found between BLUP with Bayes Cpi, the lowest correlation were found between BLUP with Bayes A.

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ABACI S.H., ÖNDER H., SPURLOCK D.M. 2016, DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GENOMIC AND PHENOTYPIC BREEDING VALUES. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 11-13.

DIY WATER FILTERING MODULE FEATURING AN AUTOMATED C&C UNIT ON REVERSED AQUAPONIC SYSTEMS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Ehud ELIA, Florentina DUMITRACHE, Nicoleta-Alina UDROIU

The goal of the project was to design and build a self-sustaining herbs production syst em in an applied research environment based on an ornamental aquarium as a nutrient source for plants. The solution was to setup an ornamental aquarium, which, on the next stage of the project, became part of an aquaponic system where the required herbs are grown. The novelty emerged from the specific requirements of the project, which led to a build of a reversed aquaponic system, on which the fish tank is positioned above the grow bed. Designing a ne w Command & Control Unit surpassed the technical issues that emerged due to the lack of conformity with a "traditional" aquaponic system. A new Water Filtering Unit was also designed in compliance with project requirements. The pap er will present the general DIY ("Do It Yourself") steps to build the Command & Control and Water Filter units for a r eversed aquaponic system. The Water Filter Unit build requires no special tools or skills, so anyone can replicate it. On the other hand, the Command & Control Unit requires some special skills as automation electrician, so profess ional help may be required in order to replicate this particular unit.

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ELIA E., DUMITRACHE F., UDROIU N.A. 2016, DIY WATER FILTERING MODULE FEATURING AN AUTOMATED C&C UNIT ON REVERSED AQUAPONIC SYSTEMS. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 311-314.

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY - A KEY TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION. ANALYZE PRODUCT COST STRUCTURE AND PROFIT CALCULATION IN THREE TYPES OF BUFFALO FARMS IN FAGARAS AREA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Răzvan Alexandru POPA, Livia VIDU, Dana Cătălina POPA, Adrian BOTA

The work aims to study the economic status of some buffalo farms in Fagaras Area. These information are absolutely necessary for developing a program for active conservation of Indigenous Romanian Buffalo. Biological and economic efficiency is an objective of any farm to obtain expected benefits. Lower production costs are a goal of all producers in the field. In accordance with the purpose, they were followed two aspects: study the influence of farm size on parameters that influence production costs and economic efficiency of the unit; to establish to what extent the economic efficiency of the farm is influenced by how the production is harnessed. Whatever the size of the farm, milk and Telemea cheese are produced under conditions of total economic inefficiency. It appears advisable to increase the global production of milk at the farm level. Increasing the volume and quality of milk production and diversification of products offered for sale are efficient ways to minimize the cost per unit of product. Diversification of production at farm level should be a strategic objective of buffaloes exploitation in Romania in order to preserve the genetic resources and biodiversity.

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POPA R.A., VIDU L., POPA D.C., BOTA A. 2016, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY - A KEY TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION. ANALYZE PRODUCT COST STRUCTURE AND PROFIT CALCULATION IN THREE TYPES OF BUFFALO FARMS IN FAGARAS AREA. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 240-245.

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF GROWTH AND EXPLOITATION OF MOLDAVIAN KARAKUL SHEEP

Published in Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX
Written by Ion BUZU

The aim of this research was to estimate the economic efficiency growth and exploitation a new type of Moldavian Karakul sheep in the Republic of Moldova condition. The research was conducted on Moldavian Karakul sheep at the flock of National Institute of Animal Livestock and Veterinary Medici, Maximovca village, Anenii Noi district, the Republic of Moldova. The skins qualities of Karakul lamb have been evaluated according to the Guidelines of evaluation marks Karakul sheep with improve principles in the Republic of Moldova. Assessing the qualities of salted-dried skins and sorting it was been effected according to standards. The sheep body weight was been determined with technical scales at different times and at different ages of young sheep, as well as, adult sheep - annually, in the autumn before the beginning of campaign mating. The ewes milk production has been determined by control milking twice a month during the whole lactation. Economic efficiency of growth and exploitation of new type of sheep, compared to classic Asian Karakul sheep, as well as and with sheep from local old race Tusca was been calculated, according to the formula:
Ee ∙ [(V ∙ S)/100] ∙ K
100
where:
Ee – the economic effect calculated to one animal per year in MD Lei;
V – production value obtained from one sheep per year, expressed in units of measure;
S – the spore of obtained production, as compared with controls, expressed in%;
K – the constant spore coefficient of diminishing production, conditioning by additional costs to obtain this spore.
As a result of the research showed that the new type of Moldavian Karakul sheep has advantages compared to the classical type of the Asian Karakul, the body weight of breeding rams - with 53.1%, at the 18 months rams - with 78.5%, at the 6 months rams -with 42.5%, at the ewes - with 28.4%, at the 18 months young ewes -39.2% at the 6 months young ewes - with 29.2%, to milk production - with 53.2% on the skin surface - with 35.1%, giving way at least with share skin sort I – with 15%. Economic efficiency, resulting from the capitalization of meat production (live weight) to these groups of animals constitutes, respectively, 940.5; 239.2; 357.0; 91.5; 211.5 and 164.2 lei / head / year, the ewes milk production - 199.5 lei / head / year and lower after skin sort - with -16.8 lei / head / year. Overall, after all productive characters, new type of Moldavian Karakul sheep has economic efficiency to the race Asian Karakul equal to 274.2 lei / head / year. The Moldavian Karakul sheep possess and economic advantages to the initial race Tusca after skin quality - by 4.5 times, the rams body weight - with 53.2%, of ewes - by 30.5%, giving way after milk production -with 29 1%. In total, the economic effect of the new type of sheep, compared to race Tusca, constituted 156.3 lei / head / year.

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BUZU I. 2016, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF GROWTH AND EXPLOITATION OF MOLDAVIAN KARAKUL SHEEP. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LIX, ISSN 2285-5750, 173-178.


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